Agree, today is enoughIt is difficult to meet an adult who could not list the Arctic seas of Russia. With this task, perhaps, even an average student could easily cope. It seems there is nothing complicated in this. However, let us recall. So, the seas of the Arctic shelf are Barents, Kara, White, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi. Total six. What are their characteristics? What do they have in common? And what are the main differences?
This article will not only answer all of thesequestions, but also will try to prove to the reader that the Arctic seas deserve no less attention than the more usual for us, especially in the summer, Black or Azov. They are unaccustomed to us in terms of temperature balance, but this does not in fact make them less interesting.
In an attempt to reveal this topic, let's try to list the main features of these parts of the globe.
First of all, it should be noted that the ArcticThe seas of Russia are covered for most of the year with a dense layer of ice. From west to east, they are getting colder. For example, if the influence of the Atlantic is still felt in the Barents Sea, the thickness of the ice increases substantially further east.
The Arctic seas become warmer due to the currents of the Pacific Ocean. Especially it can be seen in that part of the Chukchi, which directly adjoins the Bering Strait.
Also note that the so-called ArcticThe seas, in turn, exert the maximum influence on the climate of the regions of Siberia. And, oddly enough, but most of all, this impact is felt in the summer. All because in winter they are covered with ice, as well as land, and differences in temperature and humidity are not observed. But in the summer cold water masses contrast strongly with warm earth.
With all the Arctic seas of Russia for a long timeThe fishing of various marine animals is associated, which at one time led to the extermination of many species and was eventually banned. However, these places, despite the severity of the climate, constantly attract a huge number of tourists from different corners of the globe. One of the most popular routes is a visit to the North Pole. Many people, not paying attention to all the difficulties, are trying to get on this "crown" of the Earth on the icebreaker. Other favorite objects of the Arctic seas are rookeries of fur seals and walruses, "bird markets", places favored by polar bears.
The main difference of this part of the world ocean fromof all other seas of the Arctic lies in the fact that it is located to the south of the Arctic Circle, and only a small northern part of the water area extends beyond it. Thus, it turns out that the White Sea almost on all sides has natural boundaries. Only from the Barents, it is separated by a thin and very conditional line.
White is considered a relatively small internalthe sea of Russia. It occupies an area of only 90 thousand square meters. km. The average depth of these waters is 67 m and the maximum depth is 350 m. The deep waters of the White Sea are the Basin, Kandalaksha Gulf. In the northern part of the most shallow zones are located - not deeper than 50 m. It should be noted that the bottom is uneven.
Surprisingly, within the water area of the White Sea, there is a mixed climate, so to speak, having the features of marine and at the same time continental.
Those who want to see how the nature of the Arctic seas change, it is recommended to go to the Barents region, which occupies the most western position.
Geographically it communicates with the Norwegian warmthe sea, as well as the cold waters of the Arctic basin. The total area of the Barents Sea is about 1,405,000 square kilometers. km, the average depth here is about 200 m.
The climate is polar sea, the warmest amongthe remaining offshore seas of the Arctic Ocean. 3/4 of the surface of the Barents Sea is annually covered with ice, but it never freezes completely, even in winter. All this is due to the influx of warm Atlantic waters.
The relief of the bottom is inhomogeneous, has underwaterelevations, gutters and numerous hollows. All this greatly influences the hydrological characteristics of the water body. For example, this sea is characterized by good water mixing and excellent aeration.
The Kara Sea is located off the coast of the Taimyr peninsula, northeast Europe, as well as the shores of Western Siberia. Its western border is in contact with the Barents Sea, the eastern border with the Laptev Sea.
This section of the world ocean is completely located beyond the Arctic Circle. The area of the Kara Sea is about 883 thousand km², the average depth is 111 m, and the maximum reaches 600 m in some places.
The shores in the eastern part of Novaya Zemlya are cut by fjords, and on the mainland shore there are large lips and gulfs, where the great Siberian rivers flow, namely the Yenisei, Taz, Ob and Pyasina.
In the Kara Sea there are many islands, especially a lot of them off the coast of Taimyr.
The maximum salinity (33-34%) is observed at its surface in the northern part. In the spring, the melting of the ice can somewhat dissolve the gulfs near the mouths of rivers (up to 5%).
It should be noted that almost allThe Arctic seas of Siberia are under the noticeable influence of river flow. For example, in Karsky this percentage ratio reaches a mark of 40%. In general, it is known that the rivers carry 1,290 km³ of fresh water here annually, with 80% of this amount coming from June to October.
By the way, another important feature is that from October to May the Kara Sea freezes completely. That's why local people even called it an "ice bag".
Do you know which of the Arctic seas is the deepest? Laptev, of course! Geographically, it is located directly near the shores of Eastern Siberia. Previously it was even called Siberian.
Immediately note that this sea is completelyis beyond the Arctic Circle. In the north in front of him opens a cold and almost completely covered with perpetual ice the Arctic Ocean, in the west several straits connect the Laptev Sea with Karsky, in the east behind the straits begins the East Siberian, in the south there is a heavily rugged coast of the Eurasian continent.
Its total area is 664 thousand.km2, the average depth is 540 m, the shallowest part is the southern part (up to 50 sq. m.), and a region of great depth is found at the edge of the shelf, for example, in the Sadko gutter, the maximum distance in depth reaches an almost unthinkable figure of 3385 m.
The eastern part of the sea is quite seismic, sometimes to the west of the Novosibirsk Islands earthquakes up to 6 points occur.
As a rule, for most of the year the Laptev Sea is covered with ice. From the glaciers here are abundantly formed giants-icebergs.
Salinity of water is average - 34%, however near the mouthR. Lena it falls down to 1%, since a full-flowing river brings fresh water here. In addition to Lena, other large Laptev arteries flowing into the sea are Yana, Olenek, Anabar and Khatanga.
This section of the earth's surface refers tothe category of the so-called marginal continental ones. Geographically it is located near the coast of Eastern Siberia. The boundaries of these waters are generally conditional lines, and only in some parts it is really limited to land. The western territory of the East Siberian Sea passes through. Boiler and then runs along the Laptev Sea. The northern cordon completely coincides with the edge of the continental shelf. In the east it is delineated about. Wrangel and two promontories - Blossom and Yakan.
The waters of the East Siberian Sea are not badly communicated with the Arctic Ocean. The sea area is 913 thousand square meters. km, but the maximum depth reaches 915 m.
There are few islands in the East Siberian.The coastline has strong bends, in places the land projects directly into the sea. The continents in the arctic seas are usually represented by plains. True, in some areas there is still a slight bias.
Note that this sea is under the influence of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and that is why its climate is considered polar sea, with great continental influence.
A comparatively small amount of continental waters arrives here. The largest rivers that flow into this sea are Kolyma and Indigirka.
Between Fr.Wrangel and American cape Barrow is the Chukchi Sea area of 582 thousand square meters. km. Probably, to everyone who is interested in culture and traditions, it is clear that it was named after the name of the people who inhabit its shores.
In general, the Chukchi Sea is characterized by a cold climate, a tense ice situation created due to the influence of the Canadian ice cycle.
The Chukchi Sea connects with the Pacific throughBering Strait, a width of 86 km and a depth of 36 m, but it penetrates into the Arctic approximately 30 thousand cubic meters. km of relatively warm water. In August, its upper layers near the strait can be heated to +14 ° C. In the summer, unlike the cold pore, the Pacific waters move the ice edge away from the shore.
In the modern world, we are used to theto avoid the theme of ecology. Why? The thing is that somehow it has become a habit to scold industrial enterprises, unscrupulous vacationers and dishonest officials from the local administration. In general, we somehow already know at the subconscious level that everything is bad, and the future will be even worse.
But recently scientists of the Murmansk Seabiological institute after returning from the flight "Murmansk - Dudinka" brought 200 liters of sea water for analysis for Cesium-137 and Strontium-90 - radionuclides, which are indicators of anthropogenic impact. The results of painstaking work are encouraging: the northern seas are becoming cleaner, nature nevertheless copes with the damage received earlier and accumulated.
Radioactive elements, unfortunately, are still found, but in smaller quantities than in the 90's.