Lithography is a method of printing, withwhich the impression of the pattern on paper is obtained by transferring the ink layer under pressure from the printing form to a paper carrier. This method of printing refers to the oldest art, it was invented in the XIX century in Munich. In fact, lithography is a technique based on the opposition of fat-containing substances and water. The basis for the printing plate is a specially processed stone with a smooth surface, consisting of a homogeneous limestone. Before you create a drawing, obtained by lithography, the following actions should be performed:
- on the polished surface of the stone, a drawing is made with lithographic ink or a special pencil containing fat;
- the applied pattern is etched with a special mixture of nitric acid with dextrin;
- after etching, the surface of the stone is capable of taking moisture, while repelling the printing ink with a high concentration of fat;
- In conclusion, the pattern is washed off with a special tincture containing a high concentration of solvents.
Thus, in order for the image to appear when this method of printing was used, the physical and chemical properties of the objects are used.
- in the process of making a drawing, you can freely make corrections, change the plot of the picture, add new details;
- the stone form can be used many times, previously polishing it again;
- in contrast to the engraving method allows you to produce color drawings, for each color, the pattern is applied to a separate stone;
- the method differs comparative ease of execution.
To make the image clear, accurate, notblurred faces, the lithographic stone must be securely attached to a special machine. Initially, the applied pattern is washed off, after which a special paint is applied to the previously moistened base, which is made from drying oil. The porous printing paper is pressed tightly against a stone covered with a printing ink, then rolled on top by a machine roller. As a result, you get an image of a picture covered with monochrome paint.
The technique of color printing by means of an imprint on a stonecalled oleography. Technology is not much different from conventional lithography, it represents exactly the same set of actions as flat print. Impressions on paper of each of the colors are produced in strict sequence from light tones to dark ones.
In the modern world, lithography is, rather, a technique for the formation on a special material of electronic circuits and images with nanometer resolution.
Electronic lithography is a technique in which a focused electron beam separates the necessary details of a circuit or pattern on a special photosensitive element.
Autograph is a modernthe method of printing, in which the artist applies images not on the lithographic stone, but on a special transfer paper. With this paper, the pattern is automatically transferred to the stone. Artists appreciated this method of lithography. The main advantages of autographing are the possibility of sketching from nature. By applying an image through transfer paper, the artist gets the opportunity to make a clear image without the effect of specularity.
In the last century with the help of lithographymade paintings, printed black-and-white prints for sale, made maps. The method of lithography printed illustrations in books and methodological collections.
As a specific type of replicated graphics,lithography is widely used at present. This method of printing, featuring ease in performance, is used by modern artists to create black and white images. Graphic images are necessary for illustrating methodological literature, special aids, brochures and journals. However, to create a lithograph now no need for printing paper. In the field of nanotechnology, modern varieties of graphics, electronic and optical lithography are widely used. Projection lithography with the use of laser radiation is widely used for the development of advanced optical technology in order to improve metrological equipment with further introduction into production.