/ / Lithography is ... The way of printing

Lithography is ... The way of printing

Lithography is a method of printing, withwhich the impression of the pattern on paper is obtained by transferring the ink layer under pressure from the printing form to a paper carrier. This method of printing refers to the oldest art, it was invented in the XIX century in Munich. In fact, lithography is a technique based on the opposition of fat-containing substances and water. The basis for the printing plate is a specially processed stone with a smooth surface, consisting of a homogeneous limestone. Before you create a drawing, obtained by lithography, the following actions should be performed:

- on the polished surface of the stone, a drawing is made with lithographic ink or a special pencil containing fat;

- the applied pattern is etched with a special mixture of nitric acid with dextrin;

- after etching, the surface of the stone is capable of taking moisture, while repelling the printing ink with a high concentration of fat;

- In conclusion, the pattern is washed off with a special tincture containing a high concentration of solvents.

Advantages of lithography

Thus, in order for the image to appear when this method of printing was used, the physical and chemical properties of the objects are used.

lithography is
Lithography is often confused with engraving, but thiscompletely different methods of drawing. Engraving is an impression from specially prepared forms. Cutting a picture on a wooden workpiece - that's what engraving is, lithography does not require any preliminary efforts. As a result of the chemical reaction, a pattern appears on the paper using the imprint method. The image thus obtained can be replicated many times. The drawing made by the method of lithography can be unique, unique in its kind. In addition, lithography has undeniable advantages. Masters who repeatedly use the method of lithography in their work, note that lithography is also a relatively cheap method of printing. Allocate its following advantages:

- in the process of making a drawing, you can freely make corrections, change the plot of the picture, add new details;

- the stone form can be used many times, previously polishing it again;

- in contrast to the engraving method allows you to produce color drawings, for each color, the pattern is applied to a separate stone;

- the method differs comparative ease of execution.

Print image

printing paper

To make the image clear, accurate, notblurred faces, the lithographic stone must be securely attached to a special machine. Initially, the applied pattern is washed off, after which a special paint is applied to the previously moistened base, which is made from drying oil. The porous printing paper is pressed tightly against a stone covered with a printing ink, then rolled on top by a machine roller. As a result, you get an image of a picture covered with monochrome paint.

What is oleography?

The technique of color printing by means of an imprint on a stonecalled oleography. Technology is not much different from conventional lithography, it represents exactly the same set of actions as flat print. Impressions on paper of each of the colors are produced in strict sequence from light tones to dark ones.

flat print
For each color, a separatelithographic stone. Printing of each color is applied one by one to one sheet of paper. In the printing workshops for the creation and drawing of a picture on paper, the artist answers, the stone is processed by an apprentice.

Types of lithography

In the modern world, lithography is, rather, a technique for the formation on a special material of electronic circuits and images with nanometer resolution.

engraving lithograph
There is an optical, electronic andX-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is a modern technique in which an X-ray beam is passed through a special preform that exhibits the smallest details of the pattern on a special substrate. Optical lithography is used when it becomes necessary to transfer the pattern of an electronic circuit from a special template onto a semiconductor substrate.

Electronic lithography is a technique in which a focused electron beam separates the necessary details of a circuit or pattern on a special photosensitive element.

What is autograph?

Autograph is a modernthe method of printing, in which the artist applies images not on the lithographic stone, but on a special transfer paper. With this paper, the pattern is automatically transferred to the stone. Artists appreciated this method of lithography. The main advantages of autographing are the possibility of sketching from nature. By applying an image through transfer paper, the artist gets the opportunity to make a clear image without the effect of specularity.

Lithography in the modern world

In the last century with the help of lithographymade paintings, printed black-and-white prints for sale, made maps. The method of lithography printed illustrations in books and methodological collections.

printing method

As a specific type of replicated graphics,lithography is widely used at present. This method of printing, featuring ease in performance, is used by modern artists to create black and white images. Graphic images are necessary for illustrating methodological literature, special aids, brochures and journals. However, to create a lithograph now no need for printing paper. In the field of nanotechnology, modern varieties of graphics, electronic and optical lithography are widely used. Projection lithography with the use of laser radiation is widely used for the development of advanced optical technology in order to improve metrological equipment with further introduction into production.

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