Until the middle of the 20th century, there was a clear conviction that man was originally a vicious, evil creature, and only external factors (for example, upbringing) restrain his animal instincts.
However, philosophers and psychologists had torethink these ideas after two wars, during which the man showed himself not at all as being torn by the instincts of a being. Numerous cases of heroism, sacrifice in the name of an idea, a country, a person led to the emergence of a humanistic theory of personality. Its creator is Abraham Maslow, who put forward a postulate of an originally good, spiritual person with innate spiritual needs. It is external negative factors that help to contain these needs.
The main term, which operates humanistic theory of personality, is the concept of self-actualization.
The Theory of Erich Fromm
Many are puzzled to hear thata person is seen as an initially positive being. Why so much cruelty, anger, crimes? The humanistic theory of personality believes that even in the most cruel people there are prerequisites for self-development, simply these needs were blocked by negative social conditions. Everyone can start to realize these needs at any stage of his life.
Fromm believed that the pressure of external factorsdrowns out these needs, as a result of which a person does not do what he wants. This contradiction causes a strong personal conflict. Fromm's humanistic theory of personality shows how two opposing strivings are struggling in man: to preserve one's identity and not to remain outside of society, people. Here, the individual comes to the aid of rationalization, when he independently makes the choice - to obey the norms of society now or to reckon with their needs.