/ / Humanistic theory of personality: in every person there is a positive beginning

Humanistic theory of personality: in every person there is a positive beginning


Until the middle of the 20th century, there was a clear conviction that man was originally a vicious, evil creature, and only external factors (for example, upbringing) restrain his animal instincts.

humanistic theory of personality

However, philosophers and psychologists had torethink these ideas after two wars, during which the man showed himself not at all as being torn by the instincts of a being. Numerous cases of heroism, sacrifice in the name of an idea, a country, a person led to the emergence of a humanistic theory of personality. Its creator is Abraham Maslow, who put forward a postulate of an originally good, spiritual person with innate spiritual needs. It is external negative factors that help to contain these needs.

Self-actualization

The main term, which operates humanistic theory of personality, is the concept of self-actualization.

humanistic theory of personality development
Disclosing in the process of spiritual and personaldevelopment of their moral potential, the person is actualized. This means that he recognizes his innate needs, freed from the yoke of negative external factors, and seeks to satisfy them. This process of perfecting, approaching your "I" is called self-actualization. Humanistic theory of personality development believes that people always strive for self-realization because of their innate needs, and this process has no finale (since there is always something to strive for). Consequently, a person constantly strives for progressive development and can not remain in a state of rest for a long time.

The Theory of Erich Fromm

Many are puzzled to hear thata person is seen as an initially positive being. Why so much cruelty, anger, crimes? The humanistic theory of personality believes that even in the most cruel people there are prerequisites for self-development, simply these needs were blocked by negative social conditions. Everyone can start to realize these needs at any stage of his life.

humanistic theory of personality
In this regard, we can not fail to mention the name of the well-knownpsychoanalyst Erich Fromm, who saw in man the desire for activity and love. The humanistic theory of the personality of E. Fromm puts forward a number of higher existential needs that are available to the individual:

  • need to take care of someone (communication with others);
  • the need to create (constructive);
  • the desire for security, stability (the need for support);
  • need for awareness of their uniqueness;
  • need for an explanatory system of views;
  • the need for the meaning of life (they must become an object).

Fromm believed that the pressure of external factorsdrowns out these needs, as a result of which a person does not do what he wants. This contradiction causes a strong personal conflict. Fromm's humanistic theory of personality shows how two opposing strivings are struggling in man: to preserve one's identity and not to remain outside of society, people. Here, the individual comes to the aid of rationalization, when he independently makes the choice - to obey the norms of society now or to reckon with their needs.

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