Socio-psychological phenomena accompanyus all my life. These include perception, imitation, understanding, suggestion, leadership, persuasion, relationships, and much more. All this usually manifests itself in the process of communication, which, in turn, is considered to be the central phenomenon in psychology. However, everything is in order.
First of all it should be noted thatSocio-psychological phenomena are usually considered at several levels - formal-formalized, personal-institutional and interpersonal. And in general, all communication, in principle, is perceived as a means of improving the quality of education and work, as a special phenomenon. After all, it is in his process that the psychological and social structure of an individual, small groups and entire collectives is formed.
So, what is the specificity of the given topic?The fact that all socio-psychological phenomena, which seem to us familiar, are usually considered from several points of view. To be more precise, they are "laid out" on levels.
At first, something social only acts in a roleproofreader of biological and natural. On the second, the universal factor is manifested. Taking into account the differences in age, sex, taking into account the continuity of generations.
And, finally, the third level. It, in short, includes economic and political conditions that are important reasons for the socialization of the individual.
And the central link in all this is the conceptual apparatus. That is, the basic concepts that express the structure of small groups, individuals, as well as mass phenomena.
The socio-psychological phenomena of social psychology and their manifestations depend on much. From the communities, small and large groups in which they arise.
Also on their type. Communities can be both organized and unorganized. The phenomena arising in them are called mass-like phenomena (this will be discussed below), and behavior is spontaneous.
The class of psychological phenomena also has significance.Phenomena can be rationally meaningful (opinion, belief, values), emotionally ordered (mood, social feelings), functioning under certain conditions (for example, in extreme or conflict situations). And of course, they are both conscious and unconscious.
Theoretical knowledge is useful, but worthgo to practice and consider the socio-psychological phenomena directly. One of them is the form of mass consciousness. That is public opinion. It is in him that the attitude of people (sometimes even entire groups) to certain processes is manifested. The definition clarifies - what to those that affect their needs or interests. But the reality shows that modern people express their opinion in relation to everything, even if it does not concern them.
Public opinion can be formedin different ways - either consciously or spontaneously. In the second case, the judgment is based on certain information that is transferred from one word to another. Take, for example, the political sphere. It is unlikely that people in modern society are all experts in the topics that deal with it. However, most of them are happy to talk about politics, and many of their judgments seem smart. Why? Because the opinion expressed by them relies on the information provided by the media, politicians themselves, authoritative people. This is at best. Usually there are still rumors, errors, gossip, ideology, beliefs.
In fact, people absorb into their consciousness everything they heard, after which they just reinforce it with their guesses. And here is their "opinion" formed.
It can be identified in a separate short topic.Because the conscious approach in our time is not as "popular" as the above mentioned. Because the way of life is spontaneous. For an opinion to be conscious, people (all or most) must approach the perception of reality subjectively. And this implies the ability to think independently, rarely focusing on something that is generally accepted and already established in society. Which, again, is not peculiar to everyone.
There is one characteristic of public opinion - it has influence. Even if formed in a small team.
Example:there is a relatively small enterprise with 50 employees. As elsewhere, there is someone who is usually called an outcast. Why did this opinion come about? Perhaps he was not as communicative as everyone else, or always behaved quietly, did not object to anyone. If normal people work in the team, then this person will not cause any discussion. But it often happens that individuals of this type become "outcasts", "scapegoats" for dumping on them no one's pleasant work. About their unsociability build guesses, weave around intrigue. And now, at one moment such a person finds the final image invented by his "benefactors".
And this is just one example. What about the influence of public opinion, which covers the problems of international life and economic issues.
Joint activities are also accepted as a socio-psychological phenomenon. Why? Because it is a relationship with other people, carried out for any purpose.
It can not be embodied in reality,if its participants do not connect. Compatibility is in all cases. Its first variant is called psychophysiological. It manifests itself in cases when joint activities are carried out by similar people. They share a similar character, identical behavioral reactions, similar settings, perhaps even a world view. All this determines the consistency between them. And its presence is necessary to achieve the goals.
The second compatibility option issocial and psychological. It is considered to be the most optimal. Because it implies a combination of types of behavior of people in a certain group and the generality of their attitudes, interests and values.
This is what the jointactivity. Cohesion is a process in which a specific relationship between people is formed, through which they are united in a "single organism". Everything, again, is done for the sake of achieving certain goals and results. Each of the group members is interested in this.
It is customary to single out the levels of cohesion.And the first usually develops emotional contacts - a manifestation of sympathy and the location of people to each other, for example. The second level implies the process of convincing each person that his value system coincides with the others. And on the third, the common goal is divided.
All this affects the formation of the so-called socio-psychological climate in the team, which contributes to the maintenance of the general mood, a decent level of efficiency and well-being.
Society is a form of uniting people.Accordingly, such a concept as a mass psychic, concerns the topic under discussion directly. From it follow other terms. Mass consciousness, for example. It is one of the most common. Or a mass mood. All of us at least once, but heard these concepts.
Here, for example, are the mass phenomena of the psyche.So called certain phenomena that arise, exist and develop in fairly large social groups. Such are the mass moods. These are mental states that cover a large number of people. The prerequisites for their emergence, usually, are events of a political, social, economic and even spiritual nature. Naturally, most often the most vividly manifested negative mass sentiments. Which are capable of destroying socio-political systems, established in society and disgusted by it. The turbulent events of the "nineties" showed how much the mood can be influential.
She also has a place to be in the subject.socio-psychological phenomena. Because they often do not belong to society, but to a single individual. This refers to those phenomena that are due to the characteristics, behavior and actions of a particular person. This may be a social status, the role of the personality, its position, values, attitudes. Often it happens that because of only one person in any group (in the same work team) there are such phenomena that without him there is no place to be. If, for example, an office is ruled by an evil boss who constantly breaks down on employees constantly for any reason, then every time he is present there, the majority of employees will have a tense state. Because everyone will anticipate the "storm", and perceive themselves as a potential victim. And, again, this is just one example.
The answer to this question at the time gave the French sociologist Gabriel Tarde. More precisely, he formulated it.
Tarde argued that imitation is the main driving force of social development - imitation. And all the similarities that can only be in our world, due to the usual repetition.
The sociologist singled out the logical laws of imitation - those that are based on the means of disseminating a certain innovation or calculating a goal. Innovations were designated as a separate category.
But the most important thing in the law is that imitationgoes to the outside from the inside. In other words, the mind is always ahead of feelings. Ideas come before meaning. And goals - before the means. And of course, the desire to imitate in people is only the most prestigious. Because the hierarchy is of no small importance.
It has always been.Socio-psychological groups exist as much as humanity. Over time, only their names changed. But in general, there have always been associations of people who have some kind of a single social attribute.
There are a variety of approaches concerning the definition of the classification of the functions of such groups. It is customary to single out several as the main ones.
The first function is socialization. It is believed that a person only in a group can ensure their full existence and survival.
The second function is instrumental. It implies the joint implementation of a group of a particular activity (the interaction above has already been mentioned).
The third function is expressive. This includes everything related to psychology. It is people's mutual approval, respect, trust, friendship, feelings, emotions, and more.
And finally, the fourth function is supporting.Its essence lies in the fact that all people strive to unite in difficult situations. These are their socio-psychological characteristics. Together to cope with something easier (both physically and morally) than one.
The topic concerning them should also be noted with attention. Socio-psychological problems affect everyone today.
Take, for example, such a small group as a family.Nowadays, not every union ends its existence in a natural way - that is, the departure of one of the spouses to another world. Increasingly, marriages are falling apart. About 80%, according to statistics! And almost always the causes are the arising and unresolved psychological problems.
Or, for example, the elderly.They also have a lot of problems of a socio-psychological nature. One of the few is a sharp decline in their status in society. They cease to function as successfully as individuals, which often leads to disruptions.
And young people?It seems to many that there is someone, but they certainly should have no problems. But this is nothing more than bias and stereotypes. Search for one's place in life, attempts to “merge” in society and in certain groups, competition in all its manifestations. Yes, all problems have different socio-psychological characteristics. But they always accompany us, at any age. And some, perhaps, more often, others less. Is it possible to avoid them completely? Yes, definitely. If you live outside of society. That, however, is difficult to achieve.