Among the building materials wood occupiesspecial place. Previously it was built not just separate buildings, but entire cities. In the modern construction industry, wooden structures are widely used. SNiP || -25-80 is the main document, a design guide, and also ways to protect the specified material and building elements made of it.
Wood is highly technological,low specific gravity and ease of processing. In the manufacture of such building structures as window frames, interior doors with laths, rafter systems, mainly wood of coniferous species is used. This species is most common and quite resistant to external influences. For responsible and loaded structures, valuable hardwood can be used.
Конструкции должны обладать необходимой mechanical strength and stability. Ensuring the required characteristics is the goal of design and calculation activities. Special attention in their conduct deserves a wooden structure. SNiP defines the basic requirements for such calculations. The bearing capacity of the elements and the ultimate deformation must satisfy the established parameters.
Ensuring the long-term operation of buildings withtaking into account the impact of external factors, constant and variable loads - these are the main requirements of SNiP. Wooden roof structures and interfloor ceilings in low-rise buildings are used most widely. The main reason is low price and simplicity in manufacturing. In the wide practice, mostly typical schemes and recommendations of specialists are used.
The maximum realization of all the advantages of thisBuilding material is possible only if its stability to the external environment is ensured. High flammability, susceptibility to the damaging effects of humidity and biological pests - these drawbacks have wooden structures. SNiP provides a set of measures for their prevention and minimization of harmful consequences.
Developed and improved methods of protectionwood from fire, high humidity or pests. So, processing rafters, log and beams with special chemical compounds-fire retardants can reduce the risk of fire. Antiseptics reliably repel insect pests and inhibit the development of mold and fungi.
Stability and strength of wooden constructionThe construction is achieved through the use of materials with appropriate parameters. Benefit to SNiP wooden structures in addition to GOST 8486-66 and 9463-72 imposes some additional requirements. This applies to the width of annual layers, the use of the central part of the trunk - the core and moisture of the array.
In the construction industry, newmaterials and elements that are made of them. In recent years, increasingly profiled wooden structures. SNiP defines the main requirements for them and the rules for their use.