No matter how pathetic it may sound, but labor isone of the most important aspects of human life. Working, the person not only has the opportunity to receive means for existence, but also to realize his talents and develop. Despite this, the number of unemployed is growing every year. Let's find out why this is happening, and what kind of unemployment is stagnant. And also consider its consequences.
What is called unemployment
Before considering what stagnant unemployment is, it is worthwhile to find out who is called unemployed.
This category includes citizens who do not havea permanent source of income (social benefits, benefits and subsidies are not) and work. Unemployed persons are also considered to be those who are seeking employment or who have long abandoned such attempts.
It is worth noting that not all non-working people belong to this category. For example, they can not be considered as such:
- disabled persons;
- children under 16;
- convicted and staying in places of deprivation of liberty;
- full-time students.
At the same time, there is a whole group of citizens who receive income, which by law is still considered unemployed:
- Those who work without official registration.
- Freelancers and craftsmen.
- Farmers who do not have an official status.
- People who live on dividends from bank deposits.
Из всего вышесказанного можно сделать вывод, что from the legal point of view, the unemployed person is a person who does not have formal employment. It is sad to realize, but because of the imperfection of the law, many workers (who for one reason or another do not have the opportunity to obtain an official status) are considered unemployed.
What kinds of unemployment exist
Having considered what unemployment is, it is worthwhile to find out what are the main types of unemployment. There are five.
- Frictional. Short-term unemployment due to job change.
- Seasonal. The most common in the resort areas and agriculture.
- Institutional. The creation by the state of conditions for the unemployed is better than for the working population. For example, low salaries with high benefits.
- Cyclic. Characteristic for the crisis periods in the economy of the country and the world.
- Structural. Occurs in the case when the specialty of the employee is not in demand, and he has to change his qualification.
In some publications, unemployment is also considered stagnant. However, this is not true, since it is not a species, but a form of this phenomenon.
Forms of unemployment
Let's look at what forms there are:
- Open. The case when unemployed citizens are registered with labor exchanges, and their number can be counted.
- Hidden.The form by which a worker officially has a job, but because of a reduction in production or hours, does not really receive wages or is generally forcibly sent on leave at his own expense.
- Flowable. It occurs in economic crises.
- Stagnant unemployment.
- Voluntary. In this case, the citizen deliberately stops working for a number of reasons.
What is "stagnant unemployment"?
This form of unemployment, when a person can not officially work for more than 18 months.
In practice this does not necessarily mean that itall these 1.5 years did not work. It is possible that at this time a person was trained several times at various enterprises, but for some reason he could not get a place there.
Stagnant unemployment accounts for about 35% of theall forms of the named phenomenon. This is an impressive figure. It is sad to admit, but stagnant unemployment is most typical among the inhabitants of small towns and villages. And such a sad statistics not only in the countries of the former USSR, but also in the United States and other developed countries.
Let's look at the causes of this phenomenon:
- The most common among them is theThe lack of jobs in the region due to the closure or re-profiling of the main enterprise. For example, in a small town there is a weaving factory. In recent years, orders have become less, because of poor quality products or its inadequacy to modern consumer needs. There is no money for re-profiling or replacing obsolete equipment. And in a few years the enterprise closes. At the same time, most of the town's residents who worked in the factory become unemployed, since there is no other enterprise in this village.
- Low level of wages.When it comes to large cities or even megacities, there is a stagnant level, and any other unemployment is lower. The fact is that in such places there are many enterprises, and between them there is a struggle for qualified personnel. Therefore, the level of salaries here is an order of magnitude higher than in villages and small towns. In the latter, on the contrary, usually entrepreneurs artificially understate their salaries, because they have few competitors and know that there is simply no other place for work. In turn, employees do not want to work for pennies and prefer to exist on unemployment benefits, or be interrupted by accidental earnings.
- Lack of official registration.Quite often employers try to save on taxes and simply do not suit officially their employees or fire them without their knowledge, hindsight. In the first case, a person can work for years, but continue to have the status of unemployed. In the second - may not even know that has no official status at this enterprise.
- Schedule.In a market economy, employers are trying to squeeze out their workers to the maximum. Therefore, they are often offered a rather tough schedule, forcing them to work 10 hours 6-7 days a week, without taking into account official state holidays. Such a schedule does not allow the employee to fully rest to recover, and also to grow professionally.
Consequences of stagnant unemployment
The form of unemployment considered is one of the most destructive. After all, unlike voluntary, it refers to the forced. So what are the consequences of long-term unemployment?
- First of all, this is a loss of qualifications. After a long time not working on the specialty, a person loses some skills.
- Decreased living standards. Not having a permanent source of income more than 1.5 years, any citizen is inevitably doomed to poverty.
- Depression.Many believe that stagnant unemployment characterizes that part of the population that does not want to work on their own. After all, for 1.5 years you can at least somehow find a job, but who could not - a parasite and a bummer. Such public condemnation quite often leads to depression of citizens who do not have the opportunity to find a job at all or to do it officially. As a consequence, a person ceases to believe in himself and often drops his hands, finding consolation in alcoholism or becoming a criminal path.
- The transformation of the unemployed into an antisocial personality. Without a permanent earning, a person loses the opportunity to fully live in society.
Unemployment and Moms
Very often as examples of stagnantunemployment cases are described with housewives. The classical situation looks like this: after the birth of a child and reaching the age of 3, the mother does not go to work, but becomes a housewife.
On the one hand, this situation looks likevoluntary unemployment, but in reality this is not always the case. From the perspective of any employer, women with children are an undesirable employee. Unlike others, she has twice the chance to go on sick leave (not only because of her illness, but also because of her child).
As a rule, moms do not have the opportunitywork on weekends or often stay after the end of working hours. In addition, dismissing a working mother is always more difficult than a childless woman. Although often employers receive tax benefits from the state for providing a place for mothers. And if you break with her labor relations earlier than the agreed period, the allocated funds will have to be returned to the treasury.
For these and other reasons, it is often difficult for mothers to find a job.
Another nuance is the fact that forfull-time care of the child, mothers prefer not to work full-time. And to find such work in small towns and villages is usually problematic. In this regard, many mothers often work unofficially, which means, from the legal point of view, they are unemployed, although in practice they are not.
Problems with unemployment among students, disabled people, foreigners and former prisoners
In addition to mothers, there are a number of other categories of the population that suffer most from stagnant unemployment:
- Students correspondence or evening form of training.Unlike students in the hospital, they do not belong to the employed population. So, if they do not have formal employment, they are considered unemployed. But only students who leave the session several times a year do not hurry to find employment.
- Although disabled people are entitled to pension payments from the state, many of them do not want to be a burden and want to work fully. However, employers are not in a hurry to employ them.
- Foreigners.This category of the able-bodied population is very difficult to find official work without having the appropriate permit. Sometimes they are characterized by stagnant unemployment due to the fact that a diploma of such a person is not recognized in the country where he currently lives.
- Former prisoners. Because of their conviction, public prejudice is great. And even those of them who would like to take the path of correction, conceived do not have such an opportunity.