/ What is a harmful production factor? Classification and list

What is a harmful production factor? Classification and list


Dangers to humans can be everywhere.Even in ordinary workplaces, employees are exposed to negative factors, for example, when working at a computer or long sitting. What is a harmful production factor? This is the negative impact that workers in enterprises face.

Definition

At most plants and factories, work isImpact on employees of negative conditions. Harmful and dangerous moments are always interconnected. What is a dangerous production factor? These are the factors that cause a person's health deteriorates or an injury occurs. In the production sphere, such conditions are often encountered.

what is a harmful production factor

What is a harmful production factor?To it carry negative influences, leading to different diseases. They have the name of occupational diseases. Harmful work and dangerous production factors are similar. It should be remembered that the boundary between these concepts is conditional. In a special environment, harmful factors become dangerous. For example, high humidity is considered an unfavorable condition, it becomes the cause of various respiratory diseases. If a person in such conditions is working with an electric shock, then this is dangerous.

Classification

There is a classification of harmful industrialfactors, since they differ in origin. It happens that at enterprises unfavorable working conditions appear due to leadership. This area needs special attention from the inspection bodies. If the enterprise has dangerous factors, it is necessary to take measures to minimize their impact on people.

classification of harmful production factors

There is a classification of harmful production factors. It allows you to distribute them to:

  • physical;
  • chemical;
  • biological;
  • psychophysiological.

This list of harmful and hazardous productionfactors operates in many enterprises. All this negatively affects people, which affects their health. What is a harmful production factor, given these concepts? These are effects that damage the physical and psychological health of people. There is no clear separation between dangerous and harmful factors. It is conditional.

Harmful chemical factors

What is a harmful production factor in production? These are the negative consequences that arise from technological processes. Often this is the case with:

  • processing of parts by chemical means;
  • painting equipment;
  • welding works;
  • processes of applying anticorrosion coatings;
  • processing of metals.

If these types of work are performed, then the appearance of harmful components can not be avoided. But their intensive formation is the cause of non-compliance with technology or the misuse of equipment.

Physical factors

In fact, it is almost impossible to avoid the influence of many factors in production. Among the special ones are:

  • temperature, humidity, radiation;
  • electromagnetic fields;
  • laser and ultrasonic radiation;
  • vibration;
  • strong noises;
  • lighting;
  • exposure to dust and aerosols;
  • charged air;
  • working parts of devices.

harmful work and hazardous production factors

The impact of harmful production factors onIndividuals do not pose a threat to a person if this does not take long. But usually employees are under their influence a lot of time, besides, they usually have several types, because of this the consequences are tangible.

The effect of noise on humans

What harmful production factors are thereproduction? There are many, one of the main is noise. He is in all the shops where equipment works. Because of the constantly functioning equipment in the room is very noisy. If such factors are constantly influenced by a person, this will negatively affect his health. Severe noise is the cause of headaches, increased pressure, and hearing impairment.

Such factors affect the declineefficiency, attention, the appearance of fatigue. And this is the cause of accidents. It is important for managers to monitor the acceptable noise level so that it does not adversely affect the health of employees.

To do this, apply:

  • noise silencers;
  • individual means of protection;
  • soundproofing of noisy rooms;
  • finishing with sound-absorbing materials.

Thanks to such measures in the workplace for workers will be more comfortable environment. This reduces the risk of accidents, as well as other adverse effects.

The influence of vibration and its elimination

The list of harmful production factors includes vibration. It is divided into several categories:

  • method of transmission - general and local;
  • direction - vertical and horizontal;
  • The impact period is temporary and permanent.

Because of the constant influence of this factorworsens not only the nervous system, but also the locomotor system, analyzers. Employees who have to work constantly in such an environment complain of headaches, dizziness, motion sickness. And if humidity, high temperature and noise still influence, then due to this the negative influence of vibration is amplified.

exposure to harmful production factors

Eliminate these harmful production factors in the workplace by:

  • replacement of equipment with process equipment;
  • use of soft coatings on vibrating parts;
  • installation of instruments on a solid foundation.

Exposure to chemical factors

Components of this species are divided into several categories.

On the impact on human health, they can be:

  • toxic, affect the entire body, for example, carbon monoxide, mercury, lead;
  • irritating, they affect mucous membranes (acetone, chlorine, nitrogen oxides);
  • carcinogenic, they form cancer cells, it is chromium oxide, beryllium;
  • allergenic;
  • mutagenic, lead to changes in the DNA of cells;
  • affecting the reproductive function.

They enter the body through:

  • respiratory system;
  • GIT;
  • skin and mucous membranes.

list of harmful production factors

Dangerous, harmful production factors in the workplace affect people in different ways. On this basis there are:

  • extremely dangerous;
  • highly dangerous;
  • moderately dangerous;
  • low-risk.

If enterprises use protective equipment, workers will not be affected by negative factors. This reduces the risk of deterioration of health.

Factors of Labor

Psychophysiological factors are the severity of working conditions and its tension. Hard work implies:

  • intensive load on the heart, blood vessels, musculoskeletal and respiratory systems;
  • the size of the static load;
  • number of monotonous movements;
  • the amount of cargo to be raised;
  • poses of workers in the performance of duties.

Stress is the load on the nervoussystem, sense organs. To it carry a long mental work, monotony of processes, a load on the emotional sphere. All these factors affect many people, only to varying degrees.

Influence of harmful factors on people

At each enterprise to ensurea conducive environment for employees must be created appropriate conditions. First of all, this refers to the purity of the air at work. Sanitary and hygienic organizations divide harmful factors into chemical components and industrial dust.

The first are divided into:

  • poisons;
  • toxic chemicals;
  • medicines;
  • household chemicals;
  • poisonous components.

Dust is a problem in the mining sector,metallurgy, mechanical engineering, agriculture. Its negative impact is manifested in the fact that it develops pulmonary diseases. At each enterprise, several negative factors affect employees. It is because of this that the provision of protection is important in the manufacturing field.

How to protect from dangerous factors?

Even with the necessary requirements, allEqually impossible to get the right working conditions. This is impossible to achieve due to technological processes, products and raw materials. Protection against negative factors should provide the leaders of organizations.

In the work you need to use the following rules:

  • eliminating hazards or reducing the risk of its influence;
  • the use of safe working methods;
  • carrying out activities to combat negative factors;
  • use of protective equipment.

list of harmful and hazardous production factors

It is often the case that the measures taken do not fully ensure the safety of working conditions. In these cases, PPE is used. The most popular of them include:

  • Remedies for vibration. Since this protection reduces the efficiency of labor, you need to take regular breaks.
  • Headphones from noise. But they impair the ability to navigate, contribute to the appearance of headaches.
  • Respirators and gas masks. It’s inconvenient to work in them for a long time, therefore it is necessary to use alternative means.

PPE reduces the impact of negative factors, but they pose another danger to humans. Therefore, they should be used only as directed.

Security

Safety standards are needed to preventnegative influence of factors on the human condition. Therefore, in the production of a mandatory event is considered a safety instruction. These procedures should be recorded in a journal with the signatures of responsible persons and employees.

There are several types of such work:

  • Induction training. His conduct before taking a person to work. The event is mandatory for all, regardless of position, length of service and age.
  • Primary. Organized in the workplace, the event is conducted by a master or leader.
  • Repeated. It is carried out for each employee every 6 months.
  • Unplanned It is carried out with changes in the rules, work, when buying equipment, identifying violations, after interruptions.

In practice, not all enterprises spendinstructing Often employees are provided with a magazine for signatures that the event was. This is a violation. Safety in the enterprise depends on the work of managers.

A responsibility

Usually in organizations there are responsible persons forlabor protection. They control security. If deviations from the norms for which the workplace should be contained are identified, responsibility is foreseen. This is fixed in the law. Punishment is administrative, criminal, disciplinary.

what are the harmful production factors

Management and supervisory authorities designatepunishment for the responsible person in the form of dismissal, reprimand, fine. If serious violations are found, then the responsible person is subject to a fine, inability to engage in activities, corrective labor and imprisonment.

Safety must be the primary concern of the enterprise. Only if it is complied with, can the efficiency of work be improved, as well as ensure the uninterrupted work of the staff.

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