According to the instructions for use, "Pulmicort"is produced in the form of a suspension. The main active substance is budesonide. The drug is quite expensive - from 700 rubles and more, which is explained to some extent by the manufacturer: the medicine is manufactured by the English pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca, which has a very good reputation of world level. However, if you need to save money, you can replace the product with analogs that are more affordable, but this fact will have to be agreed with the treating doctor.
In the instructions for the use of "Pulmicort"that the basic compound is present in micronized form, which allows its use for inhalations. One package contains 0.25 mg of active substance. The manufacturer used auxiliary connections. A complete list of all used substances is in the instructions for use. "Pulmicort" contains:
Medication belongs to the class of glucocorticoid. In the instructions for use "Pulmicort" manufacturer recommended as a preparation for allergic reaction and inflammatory processes.
Manufacturer draws attention:To ensure that the treatment is as safe as possible, before using it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the instructions for the use of "Pulmicorta". For inhalations, the drug is applicable, since it is based on a special substance designed specifically for such a route of administration to the patient's body. If the formulation is used in a dosage recommended by the manufacturer, the effect will be expressed in inflammatory processes localized in the bronchial tree. The manufacturer focuses attention: using the instructions for use for inhalation "Pulmicort", you can reduce the strength of the symptoms of asthma, make less frequency of attacks.
From the alternative options "Pulmicort"has a minimal chance of side effects. This is particularly noticeable in comparison with GCS, which have a systemic effect. Correct use in accordance with the instruction for the use of "Pulmicort" 0.25 mg allows you to reduce the swelling of the bronchial mucosa, slightly reduce the volume produced by the mucous sections. Under the influence of the components of the drug, sputum is formed more slowly, the hyperreactivity of the respiratory tract decreases.
Tests have shown (and this is fixed ininstructions for use): "Pulmicort", the price for which is quite high (from 700 rubles), is well tolerated with prolonged therapy, so the waste on it is completely justified. A distinctive feature of the active compound is the absence of a mineralocorticosteroid effect.
In the instruction "Pulmicorta" (0.25 and 0.5 mg) indicated that the drug is suitable for treating individuals of different age groups. It is important to observe the dosage restrictions and all the recommendations that the doctor will give, by entering the prescription for the medication.
After one inhalation, the therapeuticthe effectiveness is felt after a few hours. The maximum result can be seen at the end of the first or second week of continuous use. The manufacturer recommends using the medication as a preventive measure. The active ingredient mentioned in the instructions for the use of "Pulmicorta" (0.5 mg and 0.25 mg), has proven itself in the treatment of asthmatics. Especially in cases when it is necessary to prevent the exacerbation of the disease.
Tests showed that the dosage of thefor inhalation "Pulmicorta" (according to the instructions for use - 0.25 or 0.5 mg) affects the concentration in urine, the circulatory system of cortisol. If the composition is used in quantities recommended by the manufacturer, there is relatively little impact on adrenal function on the part of the medicament. The difference in comparison with the use of preparations on prednisone containing 10 g of active compound is especially pronounced. To identify this fact, specialized clinical tests were conducted.
Studies have shown that there is a rapidsuction, if administered budesonide by inhalation. Feedback on the instructions for the use of "Pulmicort" mention that the manufacturer provides a clear and clear description of what is happening in the patient's body under the influence of the active compound. If the nebulizer is used to administer the drug, for adult patients, the bioavailability of the main compound reaches 15% of the total volume recommended by the doctor. Concerning the substance found in organic tissues, bioavailability for adult patients is estimated at 40-70%. The maximum concentration in the blood plasma is observed after half an hour from the start of the procedure.
In some cases, the doctor recommendsTo stop on such form of release of a preparation, as "Пульмикорт Турбухалер". The instruction for using this option is similar, since the active component is the same as in the basic "Pulmicort". Both products are produced by one manufacturer.
Shortly after administration in the patient's bodythere is a distribution of the active component to tissues and organs. On average, the possibility of coming into contact with plasma proteins for budesonide is estimated at 90%, and the volume of distribution reaches 3 l / kg. Soon after the absorption of the active ingredient (as indicated in the instruction for the use of the suspension) of the "Pulmicort", biological transformation reactions begin. Localization is the liver. The metabolites that are formed have low activity indices as GCS. The main metabolites are 6-beta-hydroxy-budesonide, 16-alpha-hydroxy-prednisolone. In comparison with the initial compound, they have GKS activity, less than a hundred times.
Preferably, the elimination is provided by the enzymeCYP3A4. The products of the metabolism reaction leave the body with urine. An alternative is the conjugated form. Metabolites do not undergo changes. For the active compound of the drug, high levels of systemic clearance are characteristic, and the kinetics is determined by the amount of medication delivered to the body. This obliges to pay special attention to the observance of dosages prescribed by the doctor and recommended by the manufacturer in the instructions for use of the "Pulmicort Turbuhaler" and the basic "Pulmicorta".
According to information about the experiments,specified in the instructions for use, for children "Pulmicort" was not tested for effectiveness and safety. There have been no special studies to determine the effectiveness of the reception of funds by persons suffering from a deficiency in kidney function, or a violation of the work of this body.
Clinical observations have shown that liver disease can lead to a longer stay of an active compound in the patient's body, rather than it is common for individuals with a healthy body.
In the instructions for the use of "Pulmicorta" (0.5 mgand other versions of the release), the manufacturer indicates that the composition is effective in bronchial asthma, if the patient is prescribed maintenance treatment for GCS. Indications for use are:
Observations were conductedinhalation described means during the period of gestation of the mother. The results of the research are fixed in the instruction manual for the use of "Pulmicorta": for children there was no negative, toxic effect, the embryos developed quite normally.
The manufacturer indicates that there is no possibilityto state absolutely precisely that against the backdrop of the use of "Pulmicort" there will be no negative effects for the fetus. In order not to harm the babies born, the instructions for the use of "Pulmicort" for inhalation to pregnant women are recommended in a minimum dosage effective for a particular patient. The drug is prescribed only if there is a risk of deterioration without budesonide.
The study of breast milk showed the abilitythe active component of the drug in question to penetrate into this substance. If the instructions for use by adults are followed, "Pulmicort" for inhalation in a therapeutic dose does not show any effect on the baby if the mother feeds it with a natural product. Based on the studies carried out, it is concluded that the drug is suitable for breast-feeding women.
In the instructions for the use of "Pulmicorta" forinhalation (the price of the drug is quite high, but if you believe the responses, the composition justifies it) indicated that the remedy should not be used if the patient has an increased sensitivity or susceptibility to any compound present in the medication.
Medication is not intended for the treatment of childrenyounger than six months of age. For people over six months, the question of the therapeutic program is taken by consulting with the doctor and assessing the possible pros and cons of such treatment.
Some groups of patients require specialattention from the physician, as "Pulmicort" can more likely provoke a negative response of the body. This category belongs to patients:
It is important to consider that the GCS can show a systemicEffect. What imposes certain limitations. This possibility is taken into account by the doctor, prescribing the drug. The doctor warns what manifestations may indicate a systemic effect, what measures should be taken in this case. In general, if the patient follows the instructions for adults developed for adults, the "Pulmicort" for inhalations is transferred well, has a narrow list of limitations, and possible side effects are estimated by patients as relatively insignificant against the background of the benefit of the remedy.
In the reviews and instructions for use"Pulmicort" notes that the drug can provoke side effects. Most often they are disturbed by the respiratory tract. Many patients who used the drug complained of candidiasis of the oral cavity and pharynx, as well as irritation of the throat. Sometimes the voice becomes more hoarse, and the mouth feels dry. It is extremely rare "Pulmicort" provoked a spasm of the bronchi.
In the instructions for the use of "Pulmicorta" forinhalations (0,5 ml and other variants of release) it is specified, that in rare cases on a background of use of a structure the head hurts, there is a risk of an angioedema. Possible:
Occasionally in the background of drug usethere are violations of behavior (the possibility of such a side effect is also indicated in the instructions for the application of "Pulmicorta"). Comments on the price and quality of the drug predominantly converge in the fact that negative responses of the organism are observed rarely, and it is not so difficult to transfer them, while the benefits of the substance are pronounced. At the same time, patients note that the drug is frankly not cheap.
At the moment, it is not known about the interaction of the active component of Pulmicort and other agents used in the therapeutic program of bronchial asthma.
If you use both Pulmicort andpreparations on ketoconazole in the amount of 200 mg (the whole dose was taken at a time in the experiment), the concentration of budesonide increases in blood plasma. "Pulmicort" was used in an amount of 3 mg daily, the entire volume was taken at a time. On average, the figures were six times higher than the standard ones.
If you use the agent with ketoconazole through12 hours after the "Pulmicort", the concentration in the plasma constituent of budesonide blood increases by an average of three times. The manufacturer warns: probably, other inhibitors of CYP3A4 may also be the cause of an increased content of the active substance of the composition in question in the blood plasma.
It is allowed to dilute "Pulmicort" with sodium chloride, solutions of sodium cromoglycate, bromide ipratropium, and also liquids containing:
"Pulmicort" is intended forinhalations. The doctor chooses the dosage, assessing the patient's condition - everything is strictly individual. If the doctor recommended a day to a milligram, the entire volume is used for one procedure. If it is necessary to apply Pulmicort at a higher dosage, it is reasonable to divide the prescribed volumes into two approaches.
For children of six months of age and older, "Pulmicort" is shown in an amount of 0.25-0.5 mg per day, but it is possible to increase the volumes to a milligram.
For adult patients and elderly people, Pulmicort is recommended in the amount of 1-2 mg per day.
If the therapy is to maintain the conditionpatient, for children the drug is shown in an amount of 0.25-2 mg per day, and for adults the optimal volume is 0.5-4 mg. Increased dosage is allowed if the disease worsens.
There will be no clinical manifestations, even ifthe patient used "Pulmicort" in a very high dose. Prolonged use of the drug in a dosage that is significantly higher than the recommended dosage may cause a systemic effect on the body, which is characteristic of drugs from the GCS class.
When deciding on the appointment of a drug for inhalation "Pulmicort", you need to remember that there is a risk of a systemic effect of GCS.
The manufacturer recommends the use of "Pulmicort"with the help of a nebulizer - a device capable of turning the suspension into suspended matter in air, which the patient inhales. The nebulizer is equipped with a mouthpiece through which to inhale the compound. A steady, deceased breath allows the substance to penetrate all parts of the respiratory system, to fill the lungs. If inhalation is necessary for a child, a mask should be used.
To use the "Pulmicort" do not fit ultrasonic devices.
Before starting the procedure, you should carefully read the instructions for use. The recommendations of the manufacturer must be observed very clearly.
Immediately after inhalation, rinsepure water mouth. This allows you to reduce the likelihood of mucosal candidiasis. In addition, thoroughly washed to minimize irritation of the skin.
Diluting the suspension, it should be used inthe next half an hour - after this time the medication loses its effectiveness. At the end of the procedure, you must rinse the nebulizer. For cleaning, a mild detergent should be used, then dry the device.
A distinctive feature of modern instruments -the formation of a saturated air flow, every minute giving from five to eight liters of treated air. The amount of the drug used for such a procedure is chosen by the physician.
As research has shown, "Pulmicort" does not influenceon the ability of a person to concentrate attention. No special restrictions are required during the therapeutic course, it is possible to control transport and instruments requiring increased response and attention.
Instructions for use of the preparation in question indicate that the active ingredient is budesonide. Several other means are also based on it:
Of the listed least of all is the drug"Tafen Nazal", but it is not suitable in every case. The price for packaging is about 300 rubles. But for the popular "Symbicort" in pharmacies ask about 2,500 rubles.
Similar in some paragraphs of instructions for the use of analogues of "Pulmicorta", at a price more affordable than the composition in question:
It is sometimes possible to replace the composition prescribed by the doctor by:
Not a bad reputation have medicines "Novopulmon", "Budostere".
If it is necessary to replace the prescription foranalogues it is important to consult a doctor, otherwise the drug may be ineffective or provoke unpredictable side effects that worsen the patient's condition. The negative experience of self-treatment can be concluded from the patients' testimonials.
The disease belongs to the number of immunoallergic,is provoked by inflammatory processes of non-infectious origin. The area of inflammation localization is respiratory organs, bronchial tree. The disease is usually chronic, gradually progressing, from time to time it is disturbed by attacks accompanied by suffocation, bronchial obstruction.
Asthma provokes a whole range of factors -external, internal: stress, mental, emotional stress, increased physical activity, poor climate, chemical, poisonous components, allergens. More likely with asthma face people suffering from problems of endocrine system functioning, weakened immunity. Asthma is often diagnosed on the background of hyperreactivity of the bronchi.
Most often the cause is the effect of the allergen onbackground of immunity disorders. Since such situations in the life of the patient are repeated, the disease is characterized by attacks. As studies have shown, every third asthmatist has a history of family history. If asthma is atopic, the hereditary factor is very important, so in most cases it is not difficult to identify which causes provoke seizures.
Allergen is not the only thing that triggers asthma.The frequency of manifestations, the nature of the flow are determined by several features. A role, for example, is the increased reactivity of smooth muscles forming the walls of the bronchi - any irritation already causes a spasm. In addition, asthma is initiated by:
Doctors say that often asthma develops due to the dustiness of the human habitat. Dust is rich in ticks, chitin of which is a strong allergen.
Asthma is divided into four stages:
The early stages are rarely accompanied by attacks, and the manifestations themselves are easily eliminated. The more active the disease develops, the more severe the exacerbation, and the medicines show an increasingly weaker result.
The origin of asthma:
Specific forms are known:
Atopic asthma is more common than others.The cause of the disease is the hypersensitivity of the respiratory system to allergens. Immunity, trying to protect against harmful agents, provokes a spasm of the muscles of the bronchial tree. Such asthma belongs to the class of exogenous, but in modern medicine is considered separately. In many respects it is connected with the hereditary factor influencing the probability of pathology development.
With exercise, and often even at rest, asthmasuffers from shortness of breath, possibly choking. Symptoms arise if you inhale pollen or find yourself in conditions of a sudden change in temperature. At an early stage, an asthma attack usually develops completely unpredictably. The patient breathes superficially, the exhalation is longer than inhalation, and it is not possible to completely release the air from the lungs, and this gives rise to a feeling of anxiety.
Asthmatics suffer from a strong, unproductive coughagainst the background of dyspnea. Cough with asthma does not work, but after the attack, small amounts of sputum may be removed. At the same time, rales in breathing are noticeable, often loud enough to be heard from a distance.
Asthmatics are characterized by orthopnea, that is, the specific position of the body (sitting, legs lowered, hands holding the support). This allows for a little easier breathing.
At the first stages of asthma, manifestationonly some of the characteristics of the listed "bouquet." Attacks initially short-lived, come rarely. This time period was called "imaginary well-being" in medicine. Over time, the symptoms become more pronounced. The best results will come from the treatment if you manage to notice the disease at the beginning and turn to the doctor on time.
The onset of the disease is not accompanied by systemichealth problems, but over time the situation worsens. Patients note that the head is hurting and dizzy - this indicates a lack of activity of the respiratory system. The patient feels weak, and when trying to move actively during the attack, he faces acute shortage of air. But between attacks usually the condition is normal, you can easily cope with physical stress (within reasonable limits).
During an asthmatic attack, theheartbeat, its rhythm is lost. On average, the frequency reaches 130 beats per minute. If the disease has reached a serious stage, even between attacks, tachycardia worries.
Often with an asthma limb, the skin acquiresbluish tinge. This sign is explained by the insufficiency of the respiratory organs, indicates that asthma is severe. End finger phalanges, nail plates are changing, there are signs that allow suspected pulmonary emphysema. All these manifestations require an early referral to the doctor. Only a doctor can choose the appropriate treatment - perhaps it will be the drug "Pulmicort" discussed above, perhaps something else.