In the article presented to your attention, we will speak about ectoparasites. The blood of warm-blooded animals is a natural food for the designated representatives of wildlife.
Bloodsucking insects are arranged in such a way that, depending on the conditions of existence, they are looking for an object to attack by the smell of skin secretions, by body temperature or by appearance.
We meet insect-bloodsuckers both outside the house and on the street: in the forest we are attacked by gnus - mosquitoes, midges, ticks, gadflies and hornflies, and at home - bedbugs, lice and fleas.
In this material we have tried in detail anddetail the means of protection from bloodsucking insects, tell about the danger to which our health is exposed, if we ignore dangerous parasites or demonstrate resistance to their bites.
Itching, which causes blood-sucking bitesinsects, is explained by the presence in their saliva of specific enzymes that dilute blood and do not allow it to clot. In some people, it provokes allergic reactions, up to a lethal outcome. Most often the place of the bite swells and itches, that is it itches.
Bloodsucking insects often become carriers of dangerous diseases - plague, encephalitis, typhoid fever, malaria and others.
Departing in summer in the forest or on the lake, it is necessaryalways carry a bottle of a deterrent. Gnus generally refers to all Diptera bloodsucking insects, living among grass, trees and shrubs.
Pharmacies have a wide range ofvarious and effective insecticides and repellents that repel blood-sucking insects, for example, the long-established and well-proven DETA, Repekul, Benzftalat, Taiga, Benzimin, Solarol and others. They are available in the form of aerosols, ointments, emulsions and lotions. However, the effect of all drugs is short. Approximately in an hour, depending on various factors, the smell weakens, and insects again start attacking. The difference between insecticides and repellents is that the first destroy insects and are extremely toxic, while the latter only scare the bastards.
Despite the fact that the chemical is veryconvenient and effective, not all of them are equally safe - most of them contain the poison dimethyl phthalate. To small children and pregnant women this substance is categorically contraindicated. This category of people is better to use natural oils of cloves, camphor, anise or lavender.
The sweet and delicate aroma of vanilla is pleasant to ourThe sense of smell, but completely unbearable to the gnat. Prepare the vanilla solution and pour it into the spray bottle. From time to time, spray the liquid on yourself and on the baby, and no Diptera will attack you.
Suitable even synthetic vanillin, sold in grocery stores in the departments of spices for baking. One packet is dissolved in hot water and poured into a bottle. It's very simple and convenient.
You can make a solution from natural vanilla.To do this, cut the pod and scrape the seeds together with the inner flesh. Then place the seeds with the pulp in boiling water and put in a water bath. After half an hour, remove from heat and put to insist in a warm place. After two hours, the solution will be ready for use. A glass of water requires 6-8 pods. The disadvantage of this tool is its color - it is very dark and leaves traces on clothes. It is recommended this infusion to be added to the bath while bathing the baby. A kid smelling of vanilla can safely sleep in a stroller on the balcony or in the garden - mosquitoes, and other bloodsucking insects, even fly up to it will not, not what to bite.
These tiny vampires are carrierstularemia, Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever and filariasis. The mackerel is the smallest (from 1 to 4 mm) of blood-sucking insects occurring in the Russian latitudes. Especially a lot of them in the taiga forests and tundra. There have been occasions when small moths have eaten up a slightly tipsy man amongst the trees.
Blood warm-blooded is food formature females. Since all phases of development of slimyets are carried out in the water, the greatest likelihood of becoming a victim of their bites in those who are near fresh water reservoirs with standing water.
Repellents and vegetable oils with a strong and sharp aroma frighten the midges very effectively. Choosing a victim, the slimy people are guided by the smell of skin discharge.
The bite of these bloodsucking representatives is quite painful, since the midges do not pierce the skin, as do mosquitoes with long proboscis, but bite through jaws that look like two sharp stilettos.
Mosquitoes at all stages of development, except for adults, arein the fresh water of lakes, ponds and swamps. In wet forests and tundra, they have no other salvation than repellents and protective mosquito nets. Interestingly, it feeds on the blood of a human mosquito, and not a male mosquito. The mosquito, that is, the female, drinks blood for the purpose of reproductive function, the male receives food only from the juice of plants.
Essential oils of carnation, anise and camphorfrighten off all bloodsucking, including mosquitoes. You can prepare a mixture of several different oils. Get a wonderful and safe protection from mosquitoes and other bloodsucking, hunting nearby.
Going to nature, do not forget to take the bottlemix with themselves to use several times. As we said above, after an hour or less, the smell on the skin is weakened, and the flying bloodsucking insects begin an attack again.
Female mosquitoes produce a characteristic subtle sound.When there are a lot of mosquitoes, an unceasing buzz is heard in the air. Especially they lyutuyut in hot weather before the rain. Bites quickly inflame, and the skin swells. No matter how itchy wound, it can not be combed - it will only scratch even more, and blood infection may occur. Pharmacies "Psilo-balm", "Fenistil" and butadion ointment, as well as an aqueous solution of baking soda, help quickly to remove irritation.
Mosquitoes are active mainly from May to October, but it happens that the mosquito family settles in the warm and damp cellars of residential buildings. Then from their squeaks and bites there is no escape in winter.
If the midge lives for no longer than three dozen days, then the mosquitoes born at the end of summer, after 1-2 months, with the onset of cold weather, fall into the diapause from which they leave with the onset of heat.
Что касается болезней, переносчиками которых are mosquitoes, these are some types of encephalitis, malaria, dengue, yellow fever and lymphatic filariasis. The most dangerous in this respect are females that have suffered diapause.
Long-term protection from mosquitoes is, beforein total, the elimination of breeding grounds located near human habitation. Such measures include: drainage of small stagnant reservoirs and marshes, observance of cleanliness and hygiene in basements, active use of insecticides.
The fight against blood-sucking insects is possible andecologically safe methods, in particular, the colonization of fish by the mosquito fish, eating mosquito larvae, planting eucalyptus trees along the banks and cultivating certain types of gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are insecticidal food of the larvae of mosquitoes, midges and mosquitoes.
The measures of protection against gadflies and gadflies are the same as against any midges. The same repellents, the same ointments and flavors.
The sting is very painful and allergenic. Quickly remove the swelling and itching by using an aqueous solution of baking soda.
Another good remedy for the effects of bites -talker of glycerin, alcoholic iodine and ammonia. It is necessary to mix 40 g of iodine and alcohol, add 60 g of glycerin and shake. When the mixture is discolored, the drug, removing the swelling and itching, is ready. It will not scare off the insect, but it will ease the state of the bitten one and neutralize the effect of the anticoagulant injected into the wound. Before applying the bottle should be shaken, because glycerin tends to flake off and sink to the bottom.
Gadflies, unlike gadflies, do not drink blood, butlay eggs under the skin of warm-blooded animals. Having thrust a small hole, the female lays eggs in it, from which the larvae feed on the blood and tissues of the mammal. Fortunately, in our country, gadflies attacking a person are not so common. Our farms are more dangerous for livestock - sheep, goats, cows, etc. A well-fed and healthy animal is rarely bitten. As a rule, gadflies attack weak and sick individuals when they go down to the reservoir to drink water, or sleep in the open air.
Blind animals infect animals with tularemia and anthrax, and ovods - with miases.
Gadfly and gadflies do not tolerate the smell of birch tar, black elderberry, anise, cloves and kerosene.
Deer fly, she is a moose fly,fly bloodsucker, deer tick, elk louse and elk tick. The population of this bloodsucking is directly related to the number of deer and moose, although it parasitizes not only on them, but also on smaller animals - foxes, badgers, dogs, and others, even on birds. She does not shun the blood of man. In our country, the bloodsucker fly prefers European areas to the Urals. She is the peddler of such a dangerous disease of cattle as anthrax.
Reindeer flies are chosen to target the movement. Attack only on adults. Small children can not be afraid of them. The hunting season is autumn, and only when the weather is dry and windless.
The bloodsucker stays a fly untilseizes its thorny paws into the skin of the victim. Immediately after that, she drops her wings and becomes like a tick. It is very difficult to detach it from the body, but it is necessary to do this, as a representative of the opposite sex arrives after one individual in order to settle on the victim and lay eggs. For the first 30-60 minutes, blood-sucking insects crawl, looking for the most secluded place with close blood vessels, and only then proceed to the meal.
The bites of the bloodsucker fly are invisible, but they are sharp andpainful, and itching appears only on the second day. At the same time, a small solid papule appears on the affected site, which lasts for two to three weeks.
The best protection against bloodsucker flies is special clothing with a hat, as well as appropriate repellents.
Especially dangerous for residents of most regionsRussian forest ixodid ticks. Although their bites are not painful, they are carriers of a lot of severe illnesses - Lyme disease, tick-borne encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and borreliosis.
The activity of insects is sharply increased from the end of spring to the beginning of hot summer days and in autumn to frosts.
Ticks hide in the tall grass and jump onclothes They move from the bottom up, looking for open areas of the body, so the trousers should be tucked into socks and the shirt behind the belt. Long sleeves and a collar should be fastened, and a scarf or a hood should be fastened on the head, and both are better.
To notice the tick is not easy. It is very small - up to 2 mm, but on light-colored clothes it is clearly visible as a black speck.
Going to the forest, it is necessary to process the skin and clothing with a special repellent against ticks, and then, after about an hour, repeat the procedure.
After returning home, it is advisable to immediately examine yourself. The favorite places of insects are behind the ears, in the groin, in the armpits and on the back of the head.
If a tick is detected, it is necessary to remove it as soon as possible, without tearing off the head. It is in the salivary glands that contain pathogenic bacteria.
Pull the tick with special tweezers or thread loop.
Currently forests and placespopular recreation before the beginning of the summer season is treated with special anti-tick agents, so when going out into nature, try to keep close to places equipped for tourists, and do not walk far from the paved paths.
Ticks annoy not only people, but also animals.After each walk, carefully inspect your pets for ticks. Against the attack of bloodsucking animals on the withers and along the spine put a few drops of the universal remedy "Leopard". From fleas and ticks, it is considered one of the best.
The following representatives of blood-sucking insects are found in residential buildings: bed bugs, lice and fleas. Note that it is rather difficult to get rid of these parasites.
Firstly, because they are most active at night and attack unnoticed, most often when a person is sleeping.
Secondly, because they are very small in size and have a protective coloration.
Thirdly, they are designed by nature itself so thatthey cannot exist without a person or his warm-blooded pet (cats, dogs, a wavy parrot, etc.) - the instinct of procreation pushes them to human dwelling.
Fourth, some of them can live in basements and in attics, getting into the apartment just to drink blood, and then get out.
Hence the conclusion - to defeat bedbugs, fleas and lice is extremely difficult. It is simpler and more correct to prevent them from appearing in the apartment at all. How to do it?
From time immemorial, our ancestors used variousinsect repellent herbs. The smell of wild rosemary, wormwood, tansy, chamomile, lavender is hated by parasites, so under sheets and mattresses they were advised to lay out the flowers, leaves and branches of these plants.
Hygiene was maintained by adding natural or synthetic vinegar, salt, and decoctions of herbs to the water for dusting.
It was even practicedwitchcraft rituals, for example, collected harmful insects that settled in the house, and threw them into the coffin to the dead person or on the ice floe during freezing. It was believed that the next home bloodsucking insects would also leave their home after the confreres.
Regarding the spread of any diseasebed bugs beyond suspicion. However, they should be feared because of the great discomfort that they create for people living in the territory chosen by them. Adult bugs and their larvae feed on human blood. They do not encroach on animals, as thick wool makes it difficult to approach the skin. Most at risk are small children, if there are any in the house. If not, then everyone else. It all depends on the number of bugs and their appetite.
During the night the bedbug eats many times.He crawls through the body of a man, leaving characteristic paths of bites. After the anticoagulant injected by it ceases to act, the wounds begin to itch.
With the onset of the morning, the bedbug hides in the junction of parts of furniture, bedding, books, electrical appliances and other hard-to-reach places.
Если не знать, как выглядят клопы, их можно и не to notice. These insects look like flat brown peas. The photo shows what the bugs look like, but this is a strong increase. Their real size is up to 4 mm. To understand that this is an insect, and not just a dirty spot, is very difficult. Neither the head nor the legs are visible. Blood sting bugs greatly increase in size.
Getting rid of bedbugs is difficult. Even leaving the apartment for a long time is unlikely to help, as these bloodsuckers can fall into suspended animation for several months and wake up with the return of the owners.
Domestic cockroaches are considered natural enemies of bedbugs, but this is where you decide for yourself whether to get them or not.
To bedbugs not settled in the apartment, you mustobserve strict hygiene of the dwelling - regularly carry out wet cleaning, vacuuming, boiling and ironing bed linen, as bugs like to lay eggs in the folds of sheets, duvet covers, pillowcases and mattresses. In the cabinets and beds, it is advisable each year to lay out fresh herbs - wild rosemary, wormwood, tansy, sweet flag, wheatgrass roots and chamomile-pyrethrum. If at least one bug is detected, all items in the room should be treated as soon as possible with ammonia, vinegar, turpentine, kerosene, acetone or denatured alcohol. Domestic blood-sucking insects can not stand these smells. They also do not tolerate sunlight, so try to bring pillows and mattresses to the balcony more often in the summer. If at least one bug appeared, then during such an assault, he would not linger in your house, much less leave offspring, but seek another, quieter refuge.
Bedbugs get into the apartment with furniture,books, things brought from vacation, etc. If there were bedbugs in a hotel, then it is likely that they will climb into suitcases and bags. In addition, bedbugs penetrate the apartment and through the ventilation holes.
Lice can be picked up in any public place - on the bus, on the train, at work, in a hotel, etc. However, getting rid of these bloodsuckers is not as difficult as bedbugs or fleas.
Three types of ectoparasites - head, pubic(ploshchitsa) and a clothes louse cannot live without a person and without his blood. A few days of famine suffice, and the adults die. Another thing - their larvae, nits. They may not go into the adult stage within a month, but under favorable conditions, they turn into imago within 5 days.
Lice, or pediculosis, is a disease of the poor, socalled social. The reason is that lice is a consequence of non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. Dirty clothes worn without a change, an unclean body - two factors contributing to the development of pediculosis. Epidemics of typhus and relapsing fever are due precisely to the lice that transferred infected blood from infected people to healthy ones.
An adult louse (photo of her in front of you) is no more than 4 mm. Nit 4 times less. Nits are attached to hair or villus tissue.
Lice and their larvae do not tolerate temperatures below -22 degrees Celsius and above +44, so they are taken out of their clothes by boiling or ironing them with a hot iron.
Lice are removed from the hair, both folk andpharmacy tools. For young children from 4 years of age, “Spinosad” is recommended, for adults “Ivermectin” and “Permethrin” are shown. The last two destroy not only lice, but other ectoparasites, including fleas.
Man's parasitic pubic, wardrobes andhead lice (photo of hair infected with nits is presented in our article) does not contact with domestic and wild animals and does not know how to hide as skillfully as a bug. Separated from a person, she quickly dies, therefore, getting rid of pediculosis is quite simple.
To folk remedies include:head wrap with a mixture of kerosene and any oil in a 1: 1 ratio; cranberry juice, which kills lice and dissolves nits; tar soap; garlic juice; tincture of hellebore; vinegar and others. The tool must be kept on the hair for at least half an hour, and then rinse and rinse the hair with vinegar (50 ml per 1 liter of water). Then you need to comb out the nits with a frequent comb. A week later, repeat the procedure.
Oils help against infection with pediculosislavender and tea tree (blood-sucking insects do not tolerate their smell). It is enough to put a few drops on the skin behind the ears, and the lice will not want to drink your blood.
Fleas can infect us more than 20diseases, including plague, tularemia, typhoid and hepatitis. Carriers of pathogens are primarily rats. Also dangerous are domestic dogs and cats that bring fleas from the street. If birds live in the attic of the house, then they can also become sources of infection.
It is difficult to notice a flea: it is very small (1-2 mm) and has the ability to jump instantly and far.
Избавиться от блох можно, ограничив их penetration into the house. If a dog or cat goes outside, then it should be put on a special flea-back collar. Also effective "Bars". From the fleas of your pet, and, consequently, you will protect a few drops deposited on the withers of the animal.
Currently, pharmacies sellinsecticides that successfully destroy bedbugs, fleas and lice - Chlorofos, Dichlorvos, Metaphos, Karbofos, Raptor, Delta ... or Lambda Zone, Kombat, Hangman, " Sinuzan "and others. They sprayed or fumigated the whole room. Free air access at the time of treatment should be blocked. People in the room should not be for at least a couple of days, since all of these drugs are very toxic.
If it is impossible to destroy the proliferated parasites on their own, it is recommended to use the help of specialists from the sanitary epidemiological stations that exist in each city.