What is genyantritis, bothers many who at leastonce in my life I suffered from this ailment. So called acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus or maxillary sinus. Over time, it can become chronic. It is the genyantritis - one of the most frequent reasons for seeking help from an otolaryngologist. All over the world in the structure of the incidence of sinusitis it is the sinusitis that is at the leading positions. Usually in a chronic stage this disease passes in adults, children often develop serious complications.
About what is sinusitis and how to deal with it,you will learn from this article. The disease develops as follows. Everything begins in the so-called maxillary sinuses. This is referred to as paired symmetrical cavities located in the upper jaw of a person. They are located between the upper alveolar processes and the bottom of the orbit. The shape resembles a tetrahedral pyramid. These sinuses communicate with the nasal passages through the holes that are in the inner wall. They are also called anastomosis. It is this anastomosis that ensures air exchange, as well as the outflow of secretion from the sinus.
The main causes of sinusitis aregetting into the bosom of an infectious agent. As a rule, this happens through anastomosis. In this case, juvenile sinusitis often occurs when bacteria get through an infectious inflammatory focus.
The disease is dangerous due to its rapid development. Deterioration of the condition in sinusitis in adults contributes to various conditions. For example, a violation of natural ventilation and drainage of the maxillary sinus.
Because of this, polyps may appear in the nose.In the future, such a condition can lead to chronic adenoiditis, pollinosis and allergic rhinitis, chronic hyperplastic rhinitis. To the development of sinusitis often leads the curvature of the nasal septum, the consequences of injuries to the facial skeleton, the abuse of "Nazivin", as well as other vasoconstrictive drugs of local action. All this affects the maintenance of chronic edema of the mucous membrane.
Another reason why a person canto know what is genyantritis is a violation of the integrity of the lower wall of the maxillary sinus, which is also called the alveolar sinus. This occurs when the growth of the teeth of the upper jaw is disrupted, as well as in the unprofessional conduct of dental procedures, deliberate lifting of the bottom.
The sinusitis, which develops for these reasons,called odontogenic. Sometimes this leads to the spread of inflammation from adjacent anatomical formations. This is possible, for example, with osteomyelitis, having a different nature of origin.
Usually before the development of sinusitis the patient suffersa long time from the cold. Because of this, there is swelling of the nasal mucosa, which leads to the maximum narrowing of the anastomosis. All this leads to the fact that ventilation as a whole worsens, the level of gas exchange in cells decreases. The acidity and composition of the mucous secretion completely changes, because it stagnates.
Because of these processes, ciliaryepithelium of the walls of the maxillary sinus, and after inflammation it covers already the plate of the mucous membrane. The consequences of this are very sad. Edema in the area of anastomosis leads to aggravation of signs of sinusitis.
Anaerobic conditions are created in whichfavorable flora for active propagation of the pathogen. In the next stage, the mucus formed is suppressed by the action of bacteria. So the genyantritis passes from the catarrhal to the purulent stage, which is fraught with unpleasant consequences. The infection can spread deep into the sinus wall, and it can be carried to adjacent tissues.
Если лечение гайморита у взрослого начать untimely, then he can move into a chronic form. This often occurs with self-medication, prolonged use of antibiotics, as well as deliberate refusal of surgical intervention and medication in favor of folk methods.
In the world there are several varieties of sinusitis. Depending on what type of disease you suffer, you will also have different treatment methods.
According to the main signs that establish what is genyantritis, it is divided into bacterial, aseptic, fungal, viral, odontogenic and allergic.
It is possible to classify this disease and by the ways that the doctor plans to take for treatment. Thus, sinusitis can be chronic, acute, with complications and without them.
There are several types of chronic sinusitis - purulent, catarrhal, polypous, hyperplastic, cystic and fibrous.
The very first bells, after which standsseriously suspect that you have sinusitis, are a violation of ventilation of the maxillary sinus. Because of this, there is a feeling of heaviness and pressure. Usually they are localized in one place. For example, on the side of the wing of the nose. As a result of a strong swelling of the nasal mucosa, free breathing can be severely impaired, the tone of the voice may change.
When a child suffers from sinusitis, it has a feeling of congestion, which arises from the swelling of tissues in the mouth of the auditory tube.
So begins a genyantritis.Symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in adults are easily diagnosed by doctors. Antibiotics or surgical intervention come to the rescue. Due to the development of inflammation, pain syndrome soon arises. It can be a headache, the patient begins to feel uncomfortable, can even ache in the eye area. All this is accompanied by swelling in the cheek area, the zone under the eyes and nasolabial folds.
If the nerves located near the sinus have been affected, neuralgia develops, the clinical picture worsens.
Pain with the tilt of the head is the surest signsinusitis. Symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in this case should be determined by a doctor. Pain in the head appears due to the increasing pressure of the liquid on the thin front wall of the maxillary sinus. In addition, all this is accompanied by secretions from the nose of viscid mucus greenish. When a person is lying on his back, the secret begins to drain to the back wall of the pharynx and provoke coughing attacks. In the mornings, the discharge becomes so abundant that even yellow-green purulent clots can form.
With the development of chronic sinusitis in the patientthe sense of smell worsens, and the ability to recognize tastes decreases. During a prolonged disruption of nasal breathing, lips dry out, pharyngitis and tonsillitis are possible.
There is a possibility that with genyantritis there will besymptoms of general intoxication. It can be a constant headache, fever, weakness in the whole body. Especially, these symptoms manifest themselves in acute forms of the disease, as well as the development of purulent inflammation. But it happens that they are also noted when the chronic process worsens.
It is worth noting that there is a direct dependencebetween the degree of emptying of the maxillary sinus and the temperature of the body. If the rinses are carried out correctly and regularly, and also apply other effective methods for eliminating pus, this will soon lead to relief of the general condition of the person, the temperature can be significantly reduced, at least for a short time.
One of the main dangers, which lies in thedevelopment of maxillary sinusitis, are possible complications. The disease can progress with inadequate, ineffective or untimely treatment. For example, if the disease occurred in a child, then in the maxillary sinus, he may develop meningitis, pansinusitis or phlegmon of paraorbital fiber.
Serious complications can arise inadult patients. These are otitis media, involvement in inflammatory processes of other paranasal sinuses, neurological complications, lesion of orbital tissues, on which catarrhal or purulent inflammation develops, intracranial complications. The latter include meningitis, which adults should fear as well as children, brain abscesses, sinustrombosis, infectious-toxic edema of the brain.
If the genyantritis occurs intermittently or the disease is severely delayed, it can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary diseases. Sinusitis in children is the background of bronchial obstructive conditions.
With any disease is extremely important in time andcorrectly to diagnose. Determine this disease, your doctor can with the help of a general anamnesis, an examination by an otolaryngologist, as well as special instrumental techniques. As a rule, you do not need to take any additional tests.
Болезненное состояние выявляется с помощью tapping and palpation of the area around the nose, and also because of the edema of the lower eyelid and cheek, there is a so-called adenoid type of face. An obligatory stage of diagnosis is the examination of the nasal cavity. In the case of the disease, swelling and reddening of the mucous membrane develops, the most pronounced form these symptoms cause in the middle nasal passage. Another sure sign of the disease is a purulent discharge that appears from the mouth of the affected sinus.
Instrumental methods of diagnosis includeX-ray, MRI, endoscopy with examination of the nasal passages, and possibly also the cavity of the maxillary sinus, sinus translucence, which is called diaphanoscopy.
The result is adequate and professionalperformed diagnostics can be not only confirmation of the disease with sinusitis, but also the definition of a specific type of disease and its stage. As a result, it is possible to establish co-factors, as well as signs that can lead to complications. So your doctor will be able to form an adequate treatment plan.
The types and causes of acute sinusitis are also described in detail in this article. This is an extremely serious disease that can lead to negative consequences and unpleasant complications.
Выделяют гнойную и катаральную формы.When purulent sinus due to constant contact of pus with the mucous membrane, the latter is reborn, which leads to the development of a chronic stage of the disease. Pain in the sinus can be very strong.
Catarrhal acute sinusitis occurs in morelightweight form. But in this case, the mucous membrane swells, becomes inflamed and increases in size. It is very important to start treatment on time and prevent the catarrhal form from going into purulent form.
Among the causes of acute sinusitis emitcatarrhal diseases, allergic reactions, all kinds of viral infections, injuries and injuries of the nose, under-treated tooth roots and the teeth themselves, gum disease
Nowadays there are many ways totreat sinusitis quickly and painlessly. As you can see, there are a large number of factors and causes that can lead to this disease. Therefore, the methods and methods of treatment can be completely different.
But in most cases, the first task of any doctor is to unclog the fistula of the maxillary sinuses, which turn out to be blocked with strong edema. Only in this case provides an outflow of pus and mucus.
Sinusitis without a puncture today can be curedeffective and painless. To do this, there is the so-called mild antibacterial and probiotic therapy. It includes medium-strength antibiotics. "Linex", "Normoflorin", "Bion-3", as well as some other drugs are considered effective remedies for sinusitis. They help in the shortest possible time to remove swelling, while performing vasoconstrictor actions.
To restore the nasal mucosaIt is recommended to use emollient drugs. These include "Pinosol" and "Euphorbium". If you want to restore the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus, then use Sinupret.
Наконец, для избавления организма от воспаленных masses and microbes are well suited "Dolphin", "Aqualor", "Aquamaris." Remember that all these medicines, especially antibiotics, for sinusitis should be prescribed only by a doctor. This is influenced by many factors, including the patient's personal tolerance. Dioxidine, octenisept, Miramistin and other drugs are often used as effective antiseptics.
There is still a special means of washingparanasal sinuses, which in professional circles is called cuckoo. This is a procedure that involves the extraction of mucopurulent masses, as well as antibacterial and antiseptic treatment of the nasopharynx and nasal cavity.
Another remedy for sinusitis that helpsgetting rid of the disease is physiotherapy. They resort to this method when the main pus from the maxillary sinuses has already been removed. This is a kind of rehabilitation method that helps the patient to get up on their feet as quickly as possible. For this, many effective sessions of infrared laser and vibroacoustic therapy, as well as quartz treatment, which is carried out for the mucous membrane of the nasal passages, help, abbreviated as this procedure called UVA.
The most important thing is not to try to cope withsinusitis at home. Otherwise it may end up having to resort to extreme measures. If the disease is severely neglected, it will not be possible to solve the problem with medical methods, you will have to resort to the surgical path. In this case, the attending physician prescribes a puncture to the patient. In the official medical language, this procedure is called the maxillary sinus puncture. Its goal is to extract mucopurulent discharge by delivering an effective medication to the inflamed area. As a rule, it is also an antibiotic.
Puncture of the maxillary sinus - painful andunpleasant procedure. It is used only in cases when it is difficult to determine the type of sinusitis, as well as when there are reasonable doubts that it is in the maxillary sinus that lies the cause of the patient's illness.
Even nowadays with the most modernequipment and equipment there are situations when the results of research, patient complaints or anamnesis data contradict each other. Helping the doctor to understand what's the matter, and only a puncture will help to prescribe the right treatment.
Many are very afraid of a puncture with the Kulikovsky needle, but at the moment it is the most effective measure, moreover, it is used much more often than non-surgical techniques.
The causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention of sinusitis are described in detail in this material. The last part is devoted just to prevention.
The most important thing is that it is quite possible to carry it out.home conditions. To prevent sinusitis, you need to beware of all sorts of infections. After all, most often it is because of them that the pathogenic microflora ends up in the nasal cavity. This is facilitated by the inhalation of viruses and bacteria that end up in the body along with polluted air or as a result of the common cold. To avoid this, you need to monitor the body's defenses, protect your health, prevent hypothermia, and, if necessary, immediately begin medical prevention of viral diseases.
Also beware of allergies. If your disease is associated with it, then you need to identify a potential allergen as soon as possible, in the future try to avoid the slightest contact with it.
Surprisingly, but one of the most effectivemeans to prevent sinusitis - water. If you are often in a room with low humidity, the risk of getting sinusitis increases many times. So if such a problem is present in your home, be sure to install a humidifier, especially if you live with children. It will clean the air in the room, prevent the mucous membrane from drying in the nasal cavity.
It is important to maintain water balance in the body. This can be achieved by using mineral water, compotes, fruit drink, natural juices. It is recommended to drink herbal tea.
And a few more general tips that will servegood prevention of this disease. Make sure that your clothes always correspond to the season and temperature indicators outside the window. Try to avoid contact with carriers of a viral infection. Include in your daily diet a sufficient amount of trace elements and vitamins. It is very important to observe the regime of work and rest. Sleep should be given at least eight hours a day.
To counteract the penetration of the infection in the sinuses, try to use antiviral agents.