In order to successfully cultivatecattle, it is necessary to know all the subtleties of care and maintenance of these animals. The most important stage is the feeding of calves, as adults do not particularly need special conditions. But young animals of any gender need special and careful care for their normal growth and development.
After the calf was born, he immediatelyit is necessary to create comfortable conditions. First, it is necessary to equip a warm dry place, which will not be blown out so that the calf can be there. To do this, usually customize special cells, in which they plant straw. You can install it in the barn, but if it is not blown.
Secondly, it is necessary to carry out correctlyfeeding calves. After the calf is born, the cow stops giving normal milk and begins to give colostrum. It is a special substance that is much more nutritious than regular milk, and also contains a lot of vitamins, antibodies and other nutrients and minerals that are necessary for the normal growth and development of newborn offspring. In addition, the newborn organism is particularly susceptible to a different kind of disease, and feeding with colostrum will relieve such a problem, as it will promote the speedy strengthening and development of immunity.
Feeding calves must pass through a specialmode. Colostrum is the main food for the newborn offspring. The process of feeding should be carried out 4 to 6 times a day. Immediately after birth, you must start with a single dose of feeding in 1 liter at a time. Over time, the breeding norm of colostrum should reach 3 liters. It is very important to note that colostrum is a special milk that has one not very pleasant property. The thing is that it too quickly loses its benefits over time, and after a few days the cow will stop giving it at all and start producing normal milk. Therefore, in the first days of life, you should try to milk the calf as often as possible with colostrum.
Feeding calves in the first days of their lives shouldaccompanied by the fact that on the second day the animal should drink a day to 1.5 liters of warm water. This is necessary to stabilize the digestive process and improve it.
It should be said that feeding a newbornThe calf is only part of caring for it. Grow a healthy and strong offspring will not work without the organization of the proper place of stay of the animal. There are some rules that are best to observe if you need to grow healthy calves.
In order to successfully carry fattening calves tonecessary scheme, you need to attend to the content of the calf separately from his mother. The whole point is that if you leave the offspring along with the parent, the calf will drink as much colostrum as he wants. Since such small animals do not have a sense of proportion, the offspring will drink too much, and overloading the organism will lead to further problems with the dairy productivity of this individual.
It is necessary to watch, that the calf drank a littlealso for the reason that too much one-time dose of colostrum simply curls upright in the stomach, and this will cause a digestive problem. It is very important to carry out the first feeding on time. It does not matter at what time of day the calving occurred, for the next 30 minutes the calf should get its first dose of colostrum.
The diet of calves for up to three weeks is onlycolostrum, milk and water. But after the expiry of this period and further it will gradually expand and become more diverse. Here are some examples of what you can give to food a little grown-up calf:
The process of feeding the young is very different depending on the sex of the animal. It is very important to properly and balancedly fatten heifers, that is, female calves. There are several reasons for this:
In order to achieve rapid growth and development of the female, it is necessary to know the correct dosage of all feeds, at what time they should be given.
Feeding a monthly calf is very important, howeverFollow the diet will be in the next few months. Beginning with the second month of his life, oatmeal in her diet should be replaced with corn or a mixture of concentrates. Silage and hay can be given in unlimited quantities. If there is a defect in the silo, then you can replace it with an abundant amount of root vegetables in the diet. Still some changes with a food occur at the moment when the pasture period begins.
In addition to dairy cattle, there are also meat cattle.Breeding cattle as a business for selling meat is a very very profitable business. However, in order to grow a good offspring, you need to create all the necessary conditions of detention. However, that's not all. To obtain a large amount of meat, you must choose one of the meat breeds of cattle. Since ordinary cows or bulls have a fairly small amount of muscle tissue in terms of its sale in the market.
One of the fairly good meat breeds of largecattle is Hereford. A great advantage of this kind of animal is that they tolerate all diseases perfectly, and their immunity is very strong. In addition, the offspring of these cows is much faster gaining weight than any other, and the animals themselves are quite hardy. Calves of meat breed Hereford are born with a weight of 34 to 36 kg, which is already quite a lot. With further proper care and feeding, babies gain 1 kg per day. It is worth noting that because of this rapid and powerful process of growth and development, calves do not have only milk from their mother, and therefore they need additional feed from the first days of life.
When breeding bulls for further slaughtermust be kept for about 15-20 months by age. When it is about three months before slaughter, it is necessary to begin intensified feeding of the individual. If everything is done correctly, then by the time of slaughter the animal will weigh more than 400 kg. The nutrition of a male animal for about half a year consists of milk, as well as a variety of feeds. In the event that the goby was born in the spring period, it can be fed not with coarse fodder, but with juicy and green grass. Such a diet will stimulate the rapid growth and development of the animal. At about the age of one year, the ration for the bull, which is meant for slaughter, should consist of a silage half. In the spring and summer period, animals that are 12 to 18 months old can not be given concentrates. In this case, they should be kept only on one pasture.