Taxes and taxation, as well as successtax system in general, are of great importance for the effectiveness of economic decisions. The state has found a way to restrain entrepreneurial activity in one direction and stimulate in others by establishing taxes, tax bases, objects and subjects of taxation, sanctions, benefits and so on. Taxes and taxation play a huge role in the process of redistribution of the national income of the country and GDP, they can affect the capital absolutely at all stages of its turnover.
The tax mechanism is designed to remove the socialtensions, equalize the income level of taxpayers, ensure political stability and create all conditions for economic growth. What is taxation and taxation and what is it? This is a direct withdrawal of a part of the public gross product by the state in its favor to form a budget, that is, centralized state finances. After all, the state budget is financed 90 percent financially through taxes and various fines, penalties and so on.
The tax is nothing more than an individual,compulsory, but at the same time, a gratuitous payment that is levied on individuals and organizations in the form of alienation of monetary funds owned by them or on the basis of ownership, or on the right of economic management, or on the right of operational management. This is done to finance the activities of the state financially. Tax and taxation are two different categories, the first of which is financial. And taxation is the process of levying taxes and taxes in general. This is also the implementation of tax control, as well as protection of legitimate interests and rights of all participants in this process.
Each country has its own systemtaxation. So, taxes in the US and Russia are completely different. But we can say that in developed countries, about 40 percent of GDP is redistributed in the form of tax and other mandatory contributions. This indicates that the level of state regulation in them is very high. But in Russia, the share of tax deductions in the consolidated budget is only 20 percent of GDP.
The tax is a complex system of relations,which includes a number of interacting components. They are called the basic elements of tax. The tax can be considered clearly established, only if the circle of its payers has already been determined, and, of course, all the elements of taxation have been established. These include the object of taxation, the tax rate, the period, the base, the procedure for calculating the tax and the timing of its payment.
The objects of taxation are not onlyprofit (income) of citizens and legal entities, but also objects of nature use, certain types of activities, transactions with securities and so on. A specific tax always has an independent and independent object of taxation.
The tax base is nothing more than a physical, value or any other characteristic of any taxable object.
Participants in tax relations are now consideredindividuals and organizations are payers of fees, taxpayers and tax agents. These include also state tax and customs authorities, executive authorities, the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation.
The essence of taxes is usually manifested throughfunctions that they perform. These include fiscal, economic, distributive, stimulating, control, reproductive and social functions.
Thus, in the modern economic system, taxes and taxation play a huge role.