The fate of the poet Annensky Inokentiy Fedorovich (1855-1909) is unique in its kind. He published his first poetic collection (and only during his lifetime) at the age of 49 under the pseudonym Nick. T-o.
The poet at first intended to head the book "Fromcaves of Polyphemus "and choose the alias" Utis "meaning" no one "in Greek (Odysseus introduced himself as Cyclops Polyphemus), later called" Quiet Songs. "Alexander Blok, who did not know who the author of the book was, considered such anonymity dubious. He wrote that the poet seemed to bury the face under the mask, which made him get lost among the multitude of books. Perhaps in this modest lostness one should look for too "a painful tear"?
The future poet was born in Omsk.His parents (see in the photo below) soon moved to St. Petersburg. Innocent Annensky in his autobiography reported that his childhood passed in an environment in which the landlord and bureaucratic elements were united. He loved to study literature and history from a young age, he felt antipathy to everything that was banal-clear and elementary.
Innocent Annensky began to write rather poetryearly. Since the concept of "symbolism" in the 1870s was still unknown to him, he considered himself a mystic. Annensky was attracted by the "religious genre" of B. E. Murillo, a Spanish artist of the 17th century. He tried to shape this genre with words.
A young poet, following the advice of his older brother,who was a well-known publicist and economist (NF Annensky), decided that up to 30 years should not be published. Therefore, his poetic experiments were not intended for printing. Innocent Annensky wrote poems in order to hone his skills and declare himself already as a mature poet.
The study of antiquity and ancient languages inThe university years temporarily supplanted writing. As Innokenty Annensky admitted, during these years he did not write anything but dissertations. "Pedagogical and administrative" activities began after the university. In the opinion of counter-colleagues, she distracted Innokentiy Fedorovich from scientific studies. And the sympathizers of his poetry believed that she interfered with creativity.
Innocent Annensky debuted in print ascritic. He published in the 1880s and 1890s a whole series of articles devoted mainly to Russian literature of the 19th century. In 1906 appeared the first "Book of Reflections", and in 1909 - the second. This collection of criticism, which differs impressionism of perception, Wilde subjectivism and associative-imaginative moods. Innocent Fedorovich stressed that he was only a reader, and not a critic at all.
Annensky-poet foresaw his forerunnersFrench Symbolists, who willingly translated a lot. In addition to enriching the language, they also deserved credit for improving aesthetic sensitivity, in that they increased the scale of artistic feelings. A significant section of the first collection of poems Annensky composed translations of French poets. Of the Russians closest to Innokenty Fedorovich was KD Balmont, who evoked awe from the author of "Quiet songs." Annensky highly appreciated the musicality and the "new flexibility" of his poetic language.
Innokenty Annensky led rather secludedliterary life. In the period of onslaught and storms, he did not defend the right to the existence of a "new" art. Annensky did not participate in further intrasymbolistic disputes.
By 1906, the first publications of Innocent Fedorovich in the symbolist press (Pereval magazine) belong. In fact, his entry into the symbolist environment took place only in the last year of his life.
Critic and poet Innokenty Annensky spoke withlectures in the "Poetic Academy". He was also a member of the "Society of Zealots of the Artistic Word", which operated under the Apollo magazine. On the pages of this journal Annensky published an article that can be called a program, - "On Modern Lyricism".
The wide resonance in the Symbolist circles caused himsudden death. Innocent Annensky died at Tsarskoye Selo Station. His biography was over, but the creative fate after death was further developed. Among the young poets close to Apollo (mostly of the acmeistic orientation, who reproached the Symbolists for their inattention to Annensky), his posthumous cult began to take shape. 4 months after the death of Innocent Fedorovich, a second collection of his poems was published. The son of the poet, V.I. Annensky-Krivich, who became his biographer, commentator, and editor, completed the preparation of the Cypress Casket (the collection was so named because the manuscripts of Annensky were kept in a cypress box). There is reason to believe that he did not always follow the author’s will of the father punctually.
Innokenty Annensky, whose poems are not in his lifetimeenjoyed great popularity, with the release of "Cypress casket" gained deserved fame. Blok wrote that this book penetrates deep into the heart and explains a lot about him. Bryusov, who had earlier paid attention to the "freshness" of turns, comparisons, epithets and even just the words that were selected in the collection of "Silent Songs", already noted as an undoubted merit the impossibility of guessing the following two stanzas from Innocent Fedorovich and the end works on its top. Krivich in 1923 published in the collection titled "The Death Pieces by In. Annensky", the remaining texts of the poet.
His lyrical hero is a man whosolves the "hateful rebus of being." Annensky scrutinizes the “I” of a person who wants to be the whole world, to spill, dissolve in it, and who is tormented by the consciousness of the inevitable end, hopeless loneliness and purposeless existence.
Poems Annensky unique originalitygives the "sly irony." According to V. Bryusov, she became the second person of Innokenty Fedorovich as a poet. The manner of writing of the author of "Cypress casket" and "Silent Songs" is sharply impressionistic. Vyacheslav Ivanov called it associative symbolism. Annensky believed that poetry does not depict. It only hints to the reader what cannot be expressed in words.
Today, the work of Inokenti Fedorovich receivedwell-deserved fame. Such a poet as Innokenty Annensky is included in the school curriculum. "Among the worlds", the analysis of which is asked to conduct students - perhaps the most famous of his poem. Note also that in addition to poetry, he wrote four plays in the spirit of Euripides on the plots of his lost tragedies.