Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) -weapons designed primarily to combat enemy armored vehicles. It can also be used to defeat fortified points, firing at low-flying targets and for other tasks.
Managed missiles are an essential partanti-tank missile system (ATGM), which also includes an ATGM launcher and guidance systems. The so-called solid fuel is used as an energy source, and the warhead (CU) is most often equipped with a cumulative charge.
As modern tanks began to equipcomposite armor and active dynamic defense systems, new anti-tank missiles are also evolving. Tandem ammunition replaced the single cumulative warhead. As a rule, these are two consecutive charges located one after the other. In the course of their explosion, two cumulative jets are formed successively, with more effective armor penetration. If a single charge "stitches" up to 600 mm of homogeneous armor, then tandem - 1200 mm or more. In this case, the elements of dynamic protection "extinguish" only the first stream, and the second destructive ability does not lose.
Also, ATGMs can be equipped with a thermobaricThe warhead that creates the effect of a volumetric explosion. When triggered, aerosol explosives are sprayed in the form of a cloud, which are then detonated, covering a large area of fire.
These types of ammunition include ATGM "Cornet" (RF), "Milan" (France-Germany), "Javelin" (USA), "Spike" (Israel) and others.
Despite the widespread use of manualanti-tank grenade launchers (RPGs) in the Second World War, they could not fully ensure the anti-tank defense of infantry. It was impossible to raise the RPG's firing range, because due to the relatively slow speed of this type of ammunition, their range and accuracy did not meet the effectiveness requirements for fighting armored vehicles at a distance of more than 500 meters. Infantry units required an effective anti-tank facility capable of hitting tanks at long distances. To solve the problem of accurate long-range firing, an ATGM was created-an anti-tank guided missile.
The first research to develop high-precisionmissile munitions began in the 40s of the twentieth century. A real breakthrough in the development of new types of weapons was achieved by the Germans, creating in 1943 the world's first ATGM X-7 Rotkaeppchen (translated "Little Red Riding Hood"). From this model the history of antitank weapons of ATGM begins.
With the proposal to create Rotkaeppchen companyBMW "appealed to the command of the Wehrmacht in 1941, but the favorable situation for Germany at the fronts was the reason for the refusal. However, already in 1943, the creation of such a rocket had yet to begin. The work was directed by Dr. M. Kramer, who developed a series of aviation missiles under the general designation "X" for the German Ministry of Aviation.
In fact, the anti-tank missile X-7 canIt is considered to be a continuation of the "X" series, because the main constructive solutions of these types of missiles were widely used in it. The case had a length of 790 mm, a diameter of 140 mm. The tail of the missile was a stabilizer and two keels mounted on an arc-shaped bar for the exit of control planes from the zone of hot gases of the solid propellant (powder) engine. Both keels were made in the form of washers with deflected plates (trim tabs), which were used as elevator rudders or ATGT steering wheels.
The weapon for its time was revolutionary.To ensure the stability of the rocket in flight, it rotated along its longitudinal axis at a rate of two revolutions per second. With the help of a special delay block, the control signals were fed to the control plane (trim tabs) only when they were in the desired position. In the tail part was a power plant in the form of a dual-mode engine from WASAG. The cumulative warhead overcame 200 mm armor.
The control system included a blockstabilization, commutator, steering wheel controls, command and receiver blocks, and two cable coils. The control system worked according to a method that today is referred to as the "three point method".
After the war, the victorious countries usedthe work of the Germans for their own production of ATGMs. Weapons of this type were recognized as very promising for fighting armored vehicles on the front line, and from the mid-1950s the first models were replenished by the arsenals of the countries of the world.
ATGMs of the first generation successfully proved themselves inmilitary conflicts of the 1950s and 1970s. Since there is no documentary evidence of the use of the German "Little Red Riding Hood" in combat operations (although they were fired about 300), the French model Nord SS.10 became the first guided missile used in real combat (Egypt, 1956). In the same place during the Six-Day War of 1967 between the Arab countries and Israel, the Soviet ATGM "Malyutka", supplied by the USSR to the Egyptian army, proved effective.
Weapons of the first generation require careful preparation of an arrow. When the warhead is guided and the subsequent remote control is used the same principle of three points:
Having carried out the shot, the operator through the opticalthe sight should simultaneously monitor the sighting mark, the tracer of the projectile and the mobile target, and manually produce control commands. They are transmitted on board the missiles by the wires that follow it. Their use imposes restrictions on the speed of the ATGM: 150-200 m / s.
If in the heat of battle splinters break the wire, the projectilebecomes uncontrollable. The low speed allowed the armored vehicles to make evasive maneuvers (if distance allowed), and the calculation, which was forced to control the trajectory of the warhead, was vulnerable. However, the probability of getting very high is 60-70%.
The real weapons from the first generation are differentsemi-automatic guidance of the missile on the target. That is, with the operator removed an intermediate task - to monitor the trajectory of the projectile. His work is to keep the aiming mark on the target, and the "smart equipment" built into the rocket sends the corrective teams. The system operates on the principle of two points.
Also in some ATGMs of the second generationA new guidance system has been applied - transmission of commands along the laser beam. This greatly increases the launching range and allows the use of rockets with a higher flight speed.
The second generation ATGM is controlled in various ways:
Point-to-point mode allowed to increase the probability of falling to 95%, however in systems with wire control, the limitation of the warhead speed remained.
Ряд стран перешли к выпуску ПТУР третьего generation, the main principle of which is the motto "shot and forgotten". The operator needs only to aim and launch the ammunition, and a smart missile with a thermal imaging homing head operating in the infrared range will itself guide the selected object. Such a system significantly increases the maneuverability and survivability of the calculation, and, consequently, affects the effectiveness of combat.
In fact, these complexes produce and sell.only the United States and Israel. American "Javelin" (FGM-148 Javelin), "Predator" (Predator), Israeli "Spike" (Spike) - the most advanced portable ATGM. Information about weapons shows that most of the models of tanks are defenseless before them. These systems are not just self-induced on armored vehicles, but also hit it in the most vulnerable part - the upper hemisphere.
Shot and forget principle increases speedfiring and, accordingly, the mobility of the calculation. Also improves the performance of the weapon. The probability of hitting the target of the third-generation ATGM is theoretically 90%. In practice, it is possible for an adversary to use optoelectronic suppression systems, which reduces the effectiveness of the homing missile head. In addition, a significant increase in the price of onboard guidance equipment and the equipping of the rocket with an infrared homing head led to a high cost of the shot. Therefore, at present, only a few countries have adopted the third generation of anti-tank systems.
On the world arms market, Russia representsATGM "Cornet". Thanks to laser control, it is referred to the “2+” generation (there are no third generation systems in the Russian Federation). The complex has worthy features regarding the price / efficiency ratio. If the use of expensive "Javelins" requires serious justification, then "Kornets", as they say, is not a pity - they can be used more often in any combat mode. His firing range is quite high: 5.5-10 km. The system can be used in a portable mode, as well as installed on the equipment.
There are several modifications:
Although the weapons of Tula specialists are highly valued, they are still criticized for their lack of effectiveness against the composite and dynamic armor of modern tanks of NATO.
The main task facing the latestguided missiles - hit any tank, regardless of the type of armor. In recent years, there has been a mini-arms race when tank builders and the creators of the ATGM are competing. Weapons are becoming more destructive, and armor - more durable.
Given the widespread useCombined protection in combination with dynamic modern anti-tank missiles are also equipped with additional devices that increase the likelihood of hitting targets. For example, head rockets are equipped with special tips, which provide for the undermining of a cumulative ammunition at an optimal distance, ensuring the formation of an ideal cumulative jet.
The use of tandem missiles has become typical.combat units for penetration of armor tanks with dynamic and combined protection. Also, to expand the scope of application of ATGM to them are manufactured missiles with thermobaric warheads. In the 3rd-generation anti-tank complexes, warheads are used, which rise to a greater height when approaching the target and attack it, diving into the roof of the tower and the body, where there is less armor protection.
For use of ATGM in closed roomsSoft start systems (Eryx) are used - missiles are equipped with starting engines, which eject it at low speed. After removal from the operator (start-up module), the main engine turns on for a certain distance, which accelerates the projectile.
Anti-tank complexes are effectivesystems to combat armored vehicles. They can be transferred manually, installed both on armored personnel carriers and aircraft, and on civilian vehicles. The second generation ATGM is being replaced by more advanced homing missiles stuffed with artificial intelligence.