Emergency situation (ES) is a violationa normal life of people, connected with material losses, threat to human health or their death. Emergency situations can result from spontaneous actions, terrorist actions, environmental accidents, natural or man-made factors.
ES are classified by:
- the degree of surprise (sudden, expected or, in other terminology, unpredictable / predictable);
- speed of propagation. The most dangerous are explosive catastrophes, followed by rapid, rapidly spreading (fast), smooth (moderate);
- scale (from object to global);
- duration of action (short-term, protracted).
If you consider the causes of emergencies, you can make another classification. It is much more complex and detailed.
- Emergencies technogenic.These include transport accidents, threats of explosions, emissions of harmful substances and other accidents related to the production or operation of equipment. In turn, each type of technogenic emergency is divided into subspecies. For example, emissions can be chemical, biological, radioactive.
- Natural Emergencies. Most often these are flooding, earthquakes, drought, freezing, tornadoes, etc.
- Ecological disasters. This is an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in water and soil, a change in the composition of the atmosphere, a violation of the ecological balance, etc.
A separate place in the classification is occupied by emergency situationssocial character. The reason for their emergence is usually social, religious, political or other social contradictions that have developed in a certain territory. Such contradictions can lead to clashes, armed conflicts, riots and other situations that can lead to the death of people, a threat to their health, material damage. Emergency situations of a social nature can damage the environment, the ecological situation, and lead to disruption of the population's livelihoods.
The starting point for such emergencies can be:
- Act of terrorism;
- crises in the government;
- food problems;
- low level of social welfare;
If the society is long under the influence of such unfavorable factors, there is a tension that gradually turns into deprivation, the emergence of social, political, military conflicts.
Social situations are very diverse.
- Legalized forms of violence (wars, armed conflicts, repression, acts of terrorism, riots and similar phenomena).
- Use of substances that disrupt the psychophysical state of people (alcohol, drugs, smoking).
- Physical impact on a person (crime, theft, banditry, charlatanism, etc.)
- Mental pressure (the activities of banned organizations, whose activities affect not only the social system, but also the psyche of people (sects, bandit groups, pyramids, etc.)
Unlike man-made and natural, social emergencies of socialcharacter have been studied little. Moreover, not all sociologists distinguish them in a separate class. Many experts consider the social nature of such phenomena as the consequences associated with other types of disasters. For this reason, there are other classifications. The most convenient is the following.
All social emergencies of a social nature are divided into social and military ones.
Actually social can be aimed at:
- human health. These include: mental disorders (suicide, activity of zombifying organizations, social diseases (AIDS, etc.), exposure to substances (drug addiction, etc.);
- the very person (mental, physical). Psychic influence is blackmail, any kind of fraud. Physical - hostage taking, banditry, terror, rape;
- groups of people.Poverty, unemployment refers to economic and social factors, conflicts between groups of people - to socio-political. This also includes the demographic dangers associated with changing the political system, the ecological situation.
Emergency situations of a military-type nature are divided into situations involving the use of conventional, nuclear or modern weapons (for example, radiation or genetic).