To get to the cozy corners of the wild anduncharted nature, where you can find the pristine peace and quiet, you need sometimes to make a long way. It is unlikely that in those places where a wide road is carried out, it is worthwhile to make a route in search of a quiet rest. To get to the desired goal and find the way back, you need to learn to determine the direction (to guide) by the sun and the stars.
The main directions in geography (north, east,south, west) are tied to the sides of the world. The north and the south are determined according to the poles of the Earth. East and West - attitude towards the direction of rotation of the planet. Conditionally on the maps of the Northern Hemisphere, the north is at the top of the map, the south - in the bottom, west and east - on the left and on the right, respectively. The principle of the four directions was an important stage of mankind in the knowledge of the surrounding world. On ancient maps, the main direction was chosen south, since it was easier to calculate by the position of the sun at the zenith. Just an easy method of orienting the sun, "calculated" the approximate directions of the west and east - in the place of sunset and sunrise.
When the orientation in space is still human,The principle of four sides is used - "left", "right", "front", "behind". This type of orientation is relative to the location of the person and the direction is not tied to the sides of the world.
If you are to orient in the forest, the mostA reliable way is to use a compass. In order for his testimony to be accurate, it must be kept away from electronic devices, metal objects and magnets. Before you navigate the terrain, you need to set the compass to the horizontal position and remove the stop from the arrow. The arrow will after some time take position "south-north", with a red end showing the north direction. If you face this side, then the east will be on the right, and the west on the left. In order not to go astray, it is often necessary to verify the correctness of the chosen direction of its movement.
Geographic maps contain specialMeridian lines that are oriented "south-north". Therefore, before using the card, place it horizontally on a flat surface, on one of the meridian lines. Or the second option - next to the right (or left) edge of the card we put the compass ready for work and orient the map so that the lines "south-north" on the map and the direction of the compass needle coincide. The card is ready for use.
Going on a trip, try to understand how to navigate the terrain without such useful devices.
If there is a compass or GPS-navigator, it cansignificantly help to orient in the forest. But these useful devices are not always available, unlike wristwatches with arrows or a widget on the screen of a smartphone. For orientation, only the clockwise direction is sufficient. If there is an electronic clock or another way of determining the current time, you can mentally imagine the clock and direction of the big arrow of your virtual clock with a finger. Next, your imaginary or real clockwork should be placed in a horizontal position.
To determine the direction of the sides of the world, you canand do not use the clock, do it roughly, "by eye". But the result with the clock will be much more accurate. Orientation by the sun and the clock is based on the fact that the location of the sun during the day varies along a certain trajectory, and knowing at what time where it should be, we can determine the sides of the world.
At noon, the sun is almost always onsouth. That is, if the hour hand is at 12 hours, it indicates the sun standing in the zenith, then this is the southern direction. This direction at noon serves as a kind of reference point, which we will use later to orient the sun. During the day, the daylight makes one full circle in the sky. During this time, the hour hand runs two laps. This principle is based on the definition of the southern direction in any daytime. The clock's arrow moves exactly twice as fast as the sun and moves to a corner half as small as the sun. For example, at three o'clock in the afternoon the hour arrow moves to an angle equal to 90 degrees, and the sun during this time will deviate by 45 degrees. The South will remain at the same point of reference. Therefore, if the bisector (middle of the angle) between the current clockwise position and the 12-hour mark is directed to the location of the sun, then the 12-hour pointer on the dial will point almost exactly to the south direction. This is the essence of orienting the sun.
Orientation by the sun and the clock differs inmorning and evening time by directing the angle of deviation from the twelve-hour mark of the dial. Until noon we look at the corner counterclockwise, in the afternoon - clockwise.
This method of identification is only suitable forlocal time. If your watch has a belt time, there will be a slight error - up to 10 degrees. For a more accurate measurement it is necessary to check in advance with the compass and see in which position the sun is at noon, and then take this error into account. With its account, the direction to the south will not be at the twelve-hour mark, but differ by a small angle.
Using the methods of orienting the sun, you needConsider small differences between summer and winter time. Usually in warm months the reference point can have a bias to two hours, which also adds errors in measuring the direction to the south: in winter it can be located in the direction of 13 hours, and in the summer - 14 hours. In the winter, the sun rises in the south-east, and sets in the south-west. In the summertime, the sunrise will be in the northeast, and the sunset in the north-west. The sunrise is exactly in the east and the sunset in the west happens only on the days of the spring and autumn equinox (March 21 and September 23, respectively). If you live in the middle zone of Russia, then just remember that around 8 o'clock in the morning the sun will be in the east, at two o'clock in the afternoon - in the south, about 8 pm - in the west.
Experienced tourists are often advised duringorientation in the sun, especially in the summer, look not at the bright blinding star, but on the shadow of any verically placed object. At a time when the sun is exactly in the south, the shadow of any object will be the shortest and directed exactly to the north.
The easiest method of determining the direction at night- the search for a direction to the north along the Polar Star - everyone seems to know, it seems, any person. Find this one of the brightest stars in the following way: try to find the familiar "ladle" of the constellation Ursa Major, identify the two extreme stars on its edges, mentally set aside about five distances along the line between them. The difficulty is that the constellation at different times of the year and days can be deployed at different angles to the observer.
The basis of this method is the fact thatthe full moon is always in the south direction, and the degree of its illumination depends on the position of the sun behind the back of the observer - you. The full moon - the sun behind you, in the last quarter - the sun on the left, etc.
If the moon is not completely illuminated, thenmentally divide her disc into six parts and try to determine how many parts the sun illuminates. The same number will be in the hours will be between the directions for these two luminaries.
Still there is a variant of division of a lunar disk on 12parts. How many such smaller parts are illuminated by the sun, for hours or hours ahead, we need to translate the clock and, having taken the Moon for the Sun, determine the direction to the south in the same way as in the daytime.