Practical teaching methods are used forknowledge of reality, the formation of skills and knowledge, deepening of knowledge. During their application, the following techniques are used: task execution planning, task setting, prompt stimulation, control and regulation, analysis of results, determination of the causes of deficiencies. Practical teaching methods can not be used without other, in particular visual and verbal, teaching methods.
Practical methods of training are as follows: the method of exercises, the method of laboratory work, the method of practical work, the method of play. Let us consider them in more detail.
Characteristics of practical teaching methods
This method of practical training hasthe greatest efficiency. An exercise is an organized systematic and repetitive execution of an action whose purpose is to master these actions or improve their quality. In order for students to master these skills well, it is necessary to organize the exercises correctly.
Exercises are of three types:
· Special - this is repeated exercises, the action of which is aimed at the formation of labor and training skills, skills.
· Derivative is the input to specialprevious exercises. They promote repetition, and thus, consolidation of previously organized skills. If no derivative repetition is used, then the skill is usually lost.
· Commented - these are exercises,employees to activate the learning process, as well as conscious fulfillment of tasks. In other words, the students and the teacher comment on the actions being taken, as a result, the latter are better understood and remembered.
Exercises are also divided into oral and written.Oral exercises are most often used in the learning process, and most importantly their purpose, it is the mastery of the culture and technique of reading, story, logical presentation of tasks, etc. Written exercises are also an important component of learning. These are grammatical, stylistic and spelling dictations, abstracts, compositions, descriptions of experiments, etc. They help to form and develop necessary skills and skills. The effectiveness of the exercise is determined by such requirements as the correct performance of all actions, the learner's conscious desire to improve the quality of activities, control and consciously take into account the conditions in which the action is to be performed, the results achieved, the repetitions of exercises over time.
It is based on an independentresearch and experiments by students. Most often it is used in the study of such subjects as chemistry, biology, physics. The laboratory method can be carried out both individually and in groups. The most problematic laboratory method is considered to be the most effective, since during its conduction a hypothesis is put forward, its path is outlined, and the necessary instruments and materials are selected by the students themselves.
Such practical methods of teaching aslaboratory and practical, very similar, but practical differs from the laboratory in that students apply in practice the knowledge they already possess. The ability to use theoretical knowledge is put forward at the forefront. Practical method contributes to the deepening of knowledge and skills, improves the quality of solving problems of correction and control, stimulates cognitive activity.
In the practical method, the following steps are distinguished: first the teacher introduces the students to the theory, then there is a briefing, a sample (example, how to do it), doing the work, and then monitoring.
Here there are created situations thatcompletely model reality. The main task of the students is to find a way out of this situation. Cognitive games contribute to stimulating the cognitive process. Recently, simulation games are especially popular when pupils have to reproduce certain qualities. Most often used and such kinds of game method, as the generation and staging of ideas. Generation is understood as something like a "brainstorm", during which students share (generate) their ideas on the solution of the problem in question. The method of staging can take many forms. For example, he can act as a dialogue, a pre-arranged theatrical performance, etc. It should be noted that cognitive games are somewhat unconventional teaching methods, which are increasingly being introduced into the educational process.