Karl Marx, German public figure andthinker, in the 19th century formed a political theory that subsequently influenced many spheres of public life. His companion was Engels. Marxist theory became the basis of the work of the Russian revolutionary Lenin.
The idea was oriented towards the approach to society as aunified social system. At the same time, the analysis of society was carried out from the standpoint of materialism. The Marxist theory pointed out that all political phenomena are based not on human consciousness, but on the being of people. The ultimate cause and decisive driving force of the events of history for the followers of the doctrine was represented in the changing modes of production.
Marxist economic theory gave impetus tothe emergence and subsequent development of the class political idea. Classes were some "derivatives" of the industrial structure of society. In this regard, their opposition is the very essence of politics.
Political freedom for the individual, in this perspective,that it was represented by Marxist theory, was viewed as freedom from oppression and an opportunity to take part in the political life of the society. The followers of the idea considered politics a "business of millions", advocating that the people of the people be given the opportunity to manifest their views and realize their will. The main role was assigned to the working class. This social stratum, freed from the yoke of the bourgeoisie itself, frees all the people from it. Thus, conditions are created for the free development of each individual.
The problem of political and social equalityMarxist theory also treats from the position of classes. Between the exploited and the exploiters there can be no equality. The main factor contributing to its achievement is the seizure of political power by the working people. In this case, the question of the political and social equality of the peasantry, the working class and the working intelligentsia will be resolved.
The theory of Marxism considers the main politicalthe question of power, mainly state. The existence of state power allows these or other forces to influence all spheres of social life, thus affirming their domination.
The Marxist theory of money considers the rolegold as a commodity of a special kind. Gold, preserving its commodity nature, has value and consumer value. The latter is that it is used for industrial purposes. The value of gold is defined as an indicator of the social labor spent on its extraction. Taking on the function of money, gold acquires special properties along with it. Thus, the consumer value begins to act as a universal form, through which the value of other goods manifests itself. The concrete work, concluded in money, can be considered as the general expression of abstract labor of the person.
Finance is considered independent, independentexchange value. Developing, commodity circulation promotes the formation of new monetary functions, new forms of money itself. Forming in the process of turnover of goods (means of payment, treasure, means of circulation, value measure, etc.) form in some way steps in the formation of independent value.
Throughout the whole theory of Marxism, the idea ofclass, political interests. They reflect everything that can contribute to the consolidation of the position of this or that subject (nation, party, class) in society. At the same time in the political sphere important importance is given to the fact of the subject realizing his own political interest, as well as the ability to see the true interests of other participants.