/ Empirical methods of research in modern science.

Empirical methods of research in modern science.



Empirical research methods are based onfacts and exist due to "solid (irrefutable) data." In addition, empirical research methods use a scientific method, unlike other research methodologies. Since empirical research methods are obtained with the help of "solid data", high internal consistency and stability of measuring instruments is required. In this situation, they (measuring instruments) play the role of that independent and dependent variable that is attracted to make scientific study. Due to the internal consistency and standardization of the measuring instruments, the stability condition is established, that is, obtaining verifiable results that can be completely trusted. The measurement tool, in turn, can not be high or fairly reliable, if such a facility supplies "raw" and unverified information to do a subsequent analysis. Then, when this requirement is not satisfied, mistakes creep into the dispersion system, and ambiguous or misleading results are obtained. Empirical research methods depend on an adequate and effective method of scientific research, with the help of which reliable and valid data are obtained, which could easily be extended to a set of events, that is, to derive certain laws. However, many theoretical and empirical research methods used to analyze empirical data assume selections and distributions that are tested according to the experimental condition (group). Empirical research methods, in general, are inevitably associated with the use of accurate measurements, even where it is difficult. For example, use is mainly observed or perceived pattern of behavior, self-report, and another psychological phenomenon. The main thing is that these measures turn out to be quite accurate. In a nasty situation, theoretical and empirical research methods will have erroneous advantages. When psychometry is used, researchers face such important problems:

a) the rudeness of even the most perfect and reliable instrument available for measurement;

b) and also by the fact that any psychological measurements are not direct, but mediated.

No psychological properties are possibleto measure directly, it is possible to measure only their alleged manifestations in behavior. The information obtained, thanks to the measurements, is only an observable value of the variables. The "true" meaning is always unknown. It can only be assessed, and this estimate is affected by the magnitude of the error.

In empirical research methods, there areSome variables that affect the experiment are the presence of independent variables, dependent variables and intermediate, or extraneous, variables. The first variables are included in the experimental plan with the help of the researcher; Other variables are not entered by the researcher, but they are always in the experiment - and they need control. Variables that are independent are associated with the conditions of the environment, which can be manipulated during the experiment, or the display of these conditions. Variables that are considered dependent are associated with a behavioral result or a mapping of it. The essence of the experiment is the variation of the conditions of the environment and the observation of what is happening, the simultaneous control (or the effect is eliminated) of the influence of any other (foreign) variable on them. Control of variables in the experiment is possible using the experimental plan, or using statistical methods.

Thus, the empirical methods of scientificResearch, through accurate experiments, allows the researcher to make accurate and irrefutable conclusions on which modern fundamental science is held.

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