Methodology and methods of scientific researchare aimed at the cognition of objective reality. In doing so, they represent a specific sequence of operations, techniques, actions. They differ depending on what the studied objects contain. It should be borne in mind that in this case the methodology is nothing more than the application of general theories, principles aimed at solving problems of a specific science, research problems.
At present, science has a sufficiently large number of methods of scientific research. Classification of methods of scientific research is carried out for various reasons.
The methodology and methods of scientific research are classified according to the scientific branches: biological, mathematical, socioeconomic, medical, legal, etc.
In accordance with the level of cognition, differentiate methods of theoretical, empirical, metatheoretical levels.
The methods of quantitative and qualitative processing of the obtained data are singled out, for example, factor, correlation, cluster analysis or presentation in the form of graphs, tables, diagrams, histograms, etc.
Classification of methods of scientific research by the nature of the researcher's activities contains four groups:
1) empirical, including self-observation andobservation; experimental and psychodiagnostic, containing questioning, testing, conversation, interviewing and sociometry; praximetric methods - cyclography, chronometry, professional description and assessment of works; biographical, based on the analysis of facts, evidence, events, human life dates and method of modeling;
2) organizational methods: complex, longitudinal, comparative;
3) interpretation methods, in particular, the structural and genetic method;
4) methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis.
However, the methodology and methods of scientific researchtraditionally carried out, based on the level of scientific knowledge - empirical or theoretical. In this case, the methods of investigation are appropriately distinguished.
The methodology and methods of scientific research directly depend on the degree of community and scope of application. In accordance with these distinguish methods:
1) philosophical (universal), which act at any stage of cognition and in all sciences;
2) general scientific, applied in the natural, humanitarian and technical sciences;
3) private, used for the study of related sciences;
4) special, applicable for a particular area of scientific knowledge.
What are the methods of scientific research inpsychology in particular? The main methods include experiment and observation, and to the auxiliary are the analysis of performance and communication. How to determine which methods of scientific research in psychology are rational to apply? The decision in each case is taken individually. Everything depends on the object and tasks of the study. It is worth noting that, as a rule, not one specific method is used, but several methods in a complex. In this case, each of the methods mutually controls and complements each other.
Under observation is meant a method consisting ofin a purposeful, systematic and deliberate perception and fixation of behavioral manifestations in order to obtain conclusions about the mental, subjective phenomena of the observed.
Experiment - differs from observation by the fact thatis carried out within the framework of a specially created research situation with active intervention in it with systematic manipulation of variable factors and recording the changes in the behavior of the subject.
The questionnaire method, the method of conversation, is connected with the collection of verbal testimony of the subjects and their subsequent analysis.