Acidic properties are those thatmost strongly manifested in this environment. There are a number of them. It is necessary to be able to determine the acid properties of alcohols and other compounds, not only to detect the content of the corresponding medium in them. This is also important for the recognition of the substance being studied.
There are many tests for the presence of acidproperties. The most elementary - immersion in the substance of the indicator - litmus paper, which reacts to the hydrogen content, turning pink or blushing. Moreover, a more saturated color demonstrates a stronger acid. And vice versa.
Acidic properties are enhanced along withan increase in the radii of negative ions and, consequently, of the atom. This ensures an easier elimination of hydrogen particles. This quality is a characteristic feature of strong acids.
There are the most characteristic acid properties. These include:
- dissociation (splitting off the hydrogen cation);
- decomposition (formation of acidic oxide and water under the influence of temperature and oxygen);
- interaction with hydroxides (as a result of which water and salt are formed);
- interaction with oxides (as a result, salt and water are also formed);
- interaction with metals preceded by hydrogen in a series of activities (salt and water are formed, sometimes with the release of gas);
- interaction with salts (only if the acid is stronger than the one that formed the salt).
Often, chemists have to independently receiveacid. There are two ways to derive them. One of them is mixing acidic oxide with water. This method is used most often. And the second is the interaction of a strong acid with a weaker salt. It is used more rarely.
It is known that acid properties are also manifested inmany organic substances. They can be expressed stronger or weaker depending on the structure of the atomic nuclei. For example, the acid properties of alcohols are manifested in the ability to cleave the hydrogen cation when interacting with alkali and metals.
Alcoholates - salts of alcohols - are capable ofhydrolyze under the action of water and liberate alcohol with metal hydroxide. This proves that the acid properties of these substances are weaker than those of water. Consequently, the environment is expressed in them more strongly.
Acidic properties of phenol are much stronger in connectionwith increased polarity of the OH compound. Therefore, this substance can also react with alkaline earth and alkali metal hydroxides. As a result, phenolic salts are formed. To identify phenol, it is most effective to use a qualitative reaction with iron (III) chloride, in which the substance acquires a blue-violet color.
Thus, the acid properties in various compoundsmanifest themselves identically, but with different intensities, which depends on the structure of the nuclei and the polarity of the hydrogen bonds. They help determine the medium and its composition. Along with these properties, there are also basic ones, which are strengthened with the weakening of the former.
All these characteristics are manifested in mostcomplex substances and form an important part of the world around us. After all, it is at their expense that many processes pass not only in nature, but also in living organisms. Therefore, acid properties are extremely important, without them life on earth would be impossible.