Nowadays, many people face stressin everyday life. At work and in the family, in public transport, in hospitals, in schools and universities, something is always going wrong. People are shouting at people, they are refused in various instances, relationships, plans, and often health, are falling apart. Different people choose for themselves different ways of coping with stressful situations.
In psychology, the ways that a person choosesfor themselves, to cope with difficulties, have received the name of coping strategies. It is believed that coping with a difficult life situation - it means working in two main directions:
Researchers Lazarus and Folkman identified several options for coping strategies. The first category is focused directly on the work with the problem:
Also, the researchers singled out mixed coping strategies as a separate group:
In Western culture,that much more effective is the habit of taking responsibility for the situation, rather than working through the emotions raging inside. This way of solving problems really does work to improve the situation. However, its use can leave a person emotionally devastated, embittered at the world and at people.
On the other hand, coping strategies likereevaluation of the situation or flight allows you to better feel yourself, but with their help you can not completely resolve the stressful situation. A person continues to work with a mentally unbalanced boss, to remain in a relationship that deprives him of his mental strength.
In psychology, the most effectiveAn approach that combines several coping strategies simultaneously. With the right choice of tactics of behavior in a stressful situation, it is easier for a person to cope with it. For this it is important to know the full range of such tactics.
Some psychologists distinguish two types of behavior ina difficult situation - coping and psychological protection. As for the first, it involves setting goals, as well as work on their achievement. Psychological protection is one way to co-exist with the problem. For example, a poor family can talk about themselves like this: "We are poor people, but honest. We do not need someone else's good, that's why we live in poverty. "
Mechanisms of coping strategies are often laid downthe individual at the unconscious level. Having tested this or that model of behavior, which at least once proved to be successful, later the person develops the habit of resorting to it again and again. In this sense, the choice of a strategy for coping with stress is laid like a conditioned reflex reaction.
A person learns every minute of his lifeinteract with the outside world. He constantly tries out certain behaviors in difficult situations. They can be due to his personal experience or cultural and historical traditions. The choice of strategy at a particular point in time depends on the resources that a person has - knowledge, health, support of close people, etc.
The personal coping strategies affect threethe main spheres. When an unpleasant situation arises, a person develops thoughts that push him towards certain actions that provoke various emotional experiences. The psychological literature describes a large number of coping strategies with stress, but in one way or another they relate to these three spheres: thinking, emotions, behavior.
Features of coping strategies are often dependent onpersonal characteristics, the worldview of the individual. Getting into stressful circumstances, a person can take an active position: start studying the literature available on the subject, seek support from relatives or friends.
The other will choose a strategy of behavior thatonly will reduce the physiological response of his body to a stressful situation. For example, he will start taking drugs or alcohol, smoking, eating out, giving up sleep or, conversely, sleeping too much, going headlong into work.
Not all coping strategies have the sameeffectiveness. Despite this, the person continues to use them. Productive tactics in psychology are those that are aimed at solving difficulties, do not adversely affect the state of human health, do not lead to social isolation.
Conversely, the use of unproductivestrategies negatively affects health, leads to a decrease in human activity, spoils relations with people. Identify the preferential use of this or that tactic can be through various methods.
For example, using the indicator of coping strategiesresearcher J. Amirkhan, which is given below in this article. However, it also happens that the individual continues to use inefficient copying. This is usually due to the following reasons:
В психологии используется большое количество tests to effectively determine the leading tactics of coping with stress in humans. By completing the test, as well as having a conversation with a specialist, you can determine how useful those options are used by the individual.
One of these tests is the Life Style Index (LSI), aimed at identifying a leading coping strategy. The technique was developed by R. Plutchik and G. Kellerman.
No less popular is the test developed by E.Heim in 1988. The researcher studied coping with a difficult life situation in cancer patients. Currently, psychologists apply his test for determining individual coping strategies in various fields. The questionnaire explores three areas of activity: intelligence, emotions, behavior.
Recognition received and test developed by J.Amirkhan presented in this article. Adaptation of the methodology was carried out in 1995 in the Research Institute. V.M. Bekhtereva by scientists N. A. Syrota and V. M. Yaltonsky. The test is designed to identify basic coping strategies. The questionnaire, as well as the key to it, can be found below.
This test is used by psychologists all over the world.Domestic experts offer it to both adult subjects, and adolescents. Before working with Amirkhan’s coping strategy indicator, the subject receives the following instruction: “This technique shows how people cope with the difficulties and obstacles they have to face in life. There are questions on the form describing various coping strategies. After reviewing these questions, you can determine which of the approaches you usually use. In other words, this test is aimed at diagnosing coping strategies. To pass the test, you need to recall one of the serious difficulties that you had to deal with over the past six months, which made you spend a large amount of energy. Reading these statements, it is necessary to choose one of three possible options that characterize you: "I agree," "I do not agree," "I completely agree."
Then the subject should answer the questions listed below.
After the diagnosis of coping strategies has been carried out using the Amirkhan test, one can proceed to the calculation of the results.
The answer of the subject “I fully agree” is estimated at 3 points;
“Agree” - 2 points;
"I do not agree" - in 1 point.
Then, the results can be estimated by the standard table of test results.
|Level||Resolution of difficulties||Search for support in the community||Avoiding difficulties|
|Extremely low||up to 16||up to 13||up to 15|
|Tall||more than 31||more than 29||more than 27|
After analyzing the existing coping strategies, you candraw conclusions about the effectiveness of their approach to stressful situations. By combining various tactics, you can successfully cope with a variety of life troubles.