Bright short life of S.I.Muravyov-Apostle is inextricably linked with the fateful events of Russia in the early XIX century. Leo Tolstoy, who did not share the ideas of the Decembrists, called him one of the best people not only of that, but of every other time. A descendant of an ancient family, who is related to the famous Ukrainian hetman, Daniel the Apostle, Sergei Ivanovich, who heads the list of the Decembrists, became a convinced Republican and an active opponent of serfdom.
September 28, 1796 in the family of the statethe figure of Ivan Matveyevich Muravyov-Apostol was born the fourth child, named Sergei. Soon after his birth, Ivan Matveyevich was sent by Emperor Paul I to the envoy to Hamburg, where he left with his family. After returning to Russia in 1801 Ivan Matveyevich soon moved to Madrid on official business. Under the pressure of Napoleon, who came to power in France, the Russian mission was recalled from Spain. Leaving the family in Paris, Ivan Matveyevich returns to Russia and receives resignation. Training begins in the boarding school of Hicks, where he immediately drew attention to himself with briskness and excellent success in the academic disciplines.
Despite the fact that children grew abroad andspeak in French, under the influence of their mother, they had a strongly developed sense of patriotism and love for Russia. However, when in 1809 the family returned to St. Petersburg and the children gladly accepted this return, Anna Semyonovna, their mother immediately warned that Russia is a country of slaves, referring to serfdom. Sergei's brilliant mathematical skills allow him in 1810 to easily enter the newly formed school of railway engineers.
After Napoleon's attack on Russia, the student wassent to serve in the main army headquarters, which commanded Kutuzov. In June 1812, 15-year-old Sergei took baptism of fire in battle for Vitebsk, and then the young lieutenant participated in the battle of Borodino. The commander of the army, MI Kutuzov, tried to keep him at the main apartment, but at a critical moment a young officer, in the company of a field company under the hurricane fire of the French, built and defended fortifications-redoubts.
The significance of the battle of Tarutino, in which alsodistinguished Lieutenant, who did not reach the 16th anniversary, was not only that the first time successful results were achieved, but also in raising the spirit of the Russian troops. Historians believe that the Tarutino battle, with its success in October 1812, forced Napoleon to make a decision to withdraw from Moscow. Then there was a fierce battle near Maloyaroslavets, which led to Napoleon's refusal to move further to Kaluga, the main forces of the Russian army began to pursue the retreating French troops. After Maloyaroslavets, colleagues from among the schools sent to the war return to St. Petersburg to continue their studies, but Muravyov-Apostol Sergey Ivanovich decided to remain in the army. Participation of Muravyov-Apostle in further battles for the liberation of the Fatherland from the French invasion was marked by the awarding of the Golden Sword and the assignment of the rank of lieutenant. After the expulsion of Napoleon from Russia, he was awarded the Order of St. Anne III degree.
Wishing to participate in a foreign campaign, the 16-year-oldthe officer achieved the appointment in the Jaeger Battalion. For the cause of Lutzen (Germany), Muravyov-Apostle Sergei Ivanovich, whose biography was very difficult, was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the 4th century. with a bow. Since 1814, under the command of General Raevsky, he took part in many battles, and for the battle near Paris the young captain receives the Order of Anna of the 2nd degree. In Paris, he meets his older brother Matvey, and together in March 2014 they return to Russia, where they are waiting for their father and eight-year brother Ippolit.
The unanimous uprising of the Russian people againstforeign invasion in 1812 showed the strength of the spirit of ordinary people, including serfs. After the glorious military campaign, when Russia liberated Europe from under the yoke of Napoleon, an enlightened part of the advanced Russian nobility was awaiting the liberation of the peoples of their Motherland from the yoke of autocracy. According to SI Murav'ev-Apostol, the liberation of Russia from its own yoke will lead to the liberation of the whole world, will contribute to the development and prosperity of the country.
The desire to help the people free themselves from tyrannytheir masters, escape from hopeless need and at the same time avoid the repetition of the horrors of the "Pugachevschina" led the best representatives of the privileged class to the need for unification. The first decade of the XIX century in general is rich in various secret societies, including the Masonic lodges, with the help of which the nobles could fill the spiritual vacuum after active participation in world events. One of these societies, which were created in 1815, was the "Artel of Officers of the Semyonovsky Regiment," organized by NM Muravyov. SI Murav'ev-Apostol, who after his return from a foreign campaign was transferred to serve in the Semenov regiment, became a member of the artel along with his brother Matvei. The goals of this society, consisting of 15-20 people, were vague and unclear. Soon, at the direction of the emperor, the artel was dissolved, but the meetings of its members continued, and it could be considered the basis for the further development of the revolutionary movement.
The first secret organization of officers ("UnionSalvation ") was established in 1816 in the house of the Muraviev brothers-apostles, where Prince Trubetskoi, Alexander and Nikita Muravyov, and Yakushkin were also present. The organization of young officers, renamed in 1817 after the adoption of Pestel PI in its members, "The Society of True and Faithful Sons of the Fatherland", as it was, remained small (30 people), but with more clearly defined goals. The main task of the society was the struggle for the liberation of the peasants from serfdom and the elimination of autocracy, which is enshrined in the charter of society. In an effort to widely spread their influence, members of society were accepted not only by noblemen, but also by philistines, merchants, clergy and free peasants.
The so-called Indigenouscouncil, which consisted of Muravyov-Apostol Sergei Ivanovich. Along with the growing discontent of the masses within the country and the strengthening of the pan-European revolutionary situation in the "Union of Prosperity", supporters of a decisive military onslaught against autocracy and the establishment of a republican system gained more and more influence. The correctness of this approach was confirmed by the spontaneous appearance in 1820 of the soldiers-guards of the Semyonovsky regiment. After suppressing the indignation in the Semenovsky regiment, he was disbanded, and Muravyov-Apostol Sergei Ivanovich was transferred to the rank of colonel in the Chernigov infantry regiment. The congress of the Root Council of the "Union of Prosperity", founded in January 1821, announced the dissolution of the society. However, in fact, not the liquidation was carried out, but the reorganization of the "Union", which resulted in the organization of two societies coordinating joint actions.
Secret organization in Ukraine, initiatorthe creation of which was the members of the Tulchin government of the "Union of Prosperity", was called the "Southern Society". It was headed by PI Pestel, the head of the most numerous Vasilievskaya council was Sergei Murav'ev-Apostol (Decembrist). The program goals and objectives of society, to which in 1825 the "Society of United Slavs" joined, are set out in the "Russian Truth" of the authorship of Pavel Ivanovich Pestel.
The goals of the society remained consonant with the tasks of the UnionWelfare ", but the action was suggested more resolutely, using the killing of the king, to decapitate the monarchical party. At the same time Pestel believed that the uprising should take place in the capital and be carefully prepared, and Sergei Ivanovich Muravyov-Apostle, Decembrist, insisted on early action with the use of troops under the command of officers - members of the Southern Society.
After the failure of the military speeches on the SenateSquare (St. Petersburg), at the end of December 1815 in the Chernigov regiment stationed in the Kiev province, a riot of soldiers began. The reason for the uprising was the arrest of Lieutenant Colonel S.I. Muravyov-Apostol, who was personally led by the regiment commander after receiving news of the uprising in St. Petersburg. The next day, the rebels occupied Cornflowers, and then Motovilovka. In Motovilovka, a proclamation of the rebels (the “Orthodox Catechism”), which was composed by Muravyov-Apostol and Bestuzhev-Ryumin, was announced before the formation. The Chernigov regiment began to move to St. Petersburg with the hope that it would be supported by other military units. However, these hopes were unfounded, and under the White Church, the regiment was surrounded by a detachment of hussars and gunners. On January 3, 1826, they were defeated by government forces. Sergey Ivanovich's younger brother, Hippolytus, not wanting to be captured, shot himself, and he himself, seriously wounded, was captured. During the investigation, he behaved courageously and nobly, trying to shield his comrades and take all the blame on himself.
The movement of the Decembrists in Russia was special,that they did not rely on a specific social stratum and, going to the death risk in the name of the liberation of the people, did not seek support in it. The situation of the interregnum after the sudden death of Alexander I allowed the Decembrists to withdraw the Guards regiments to the Senate Square in order to force the Senate to declare the abolition of the autocracy, the abolition of serfdom and the establishment of political freedoms.
Нерешительность и разрозненность действий conspirators led to the fact that the uprising of the Decembrists (the year 1825) was defeated. The Supreme Criminal Court, established for the trial of participants in the military mutiny, sentenced 121 people. In accordance with the degree of fault, all who were on the list of the Decembrists were divided into 11 categories. In the first category, which provides for the death penalty first, and then replaced with eternal hard labor, 31 people were convicted. Five people, recognized by the investigative commission outside the ranks, were convicted of hanging, including Muravyov-Apostol Sergei Ivanovich. In July 1826, the verdict was carried out.
Усадьба Муравьевых-Апостолов в Москве located on the Old Basin street. After the uprising of the Decembrists (year 1825), the house was sold. The perpetuation of the memory of the first Russian revolutionaries was thought even by Lunacharsky, who was about to open a museum of the Decembrists in the manor house. The implementation of this plan took place only in 1986, but five years later it was closed due to the accident rate of the building. Invited in 1991, the descendants of the Muravyov-Apostles decided to restore the building with the efforts of the family. After almost ten years of hard work, the main house of the estate was restored and leased to the Decembrist Museum. Currently, there are regularly held exhibitions and tours.