/ / Peaceful Treaty of Trianon with Hungary: conditions and consequences

Peaceful Trianon treaty with Hungary: conditions and consequences


In 1920, June 4, the Trianon Peace Treaty was signed between Hungary and the states that won the First World War. The agreement came into force in 1921, on July 26. Let us consider the conditions Trianon treaty with Hungary.

Trianon Treaty

General information

Among the main allied powers were:

  • USA.
  • Britannia.
  • Italy.
  • France.
  • Japan.

To them at signing Trianon the peace treaty in 1920 joined:

  • The Kingdom of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
  • Nicaragua.
  • Cuba.
  • Poland.
  • Panama.
  • Siam.
  • Romania.
  • Portugal.
  • Czechoslovakia.

This agreement was part of the Versailles-Washington a system for settling the geopolitical situation after the First World War. In addition to him, were signed Neiysky, Saint-Germain contracts and the Sevres agreement that has not entered into force with Turkey.

Prehistory

Conclusion Trianon the treaty with Hungary occurred later than with Austria and Germany. This was due to the complex inside- and foreign policy environment. The events that took place at that time in Hungary provoked a deepening of the revolutionary movement and foreign intervention.

trianons peace treaty

In 1918Austria-Hungary broke up, Hungary was proclaimed a republic. In November, an agreement was signed on the truce and surrender of the empire. However, by the time Hungary declared withdrawing from Austria-Hungary.

Given the current situation, representativesThe Entente considered it expedient to conclude a new treaty. In mid-November 1918, the democratic government of the Hungarian Republic signed a new agreement in Belgrade with the allied countries. The delegation from the Entente was then headed by the French general. He imposed more hard conditions than Hungary expected.

However, the newly-formed republicwas in an economic blockade and under military and political pressure, which could be lifted only after the signing of the agreement. In November 1918 the number of the Hungarian army was significantly reduced. Behind score of this armed The forces of Yugoslavia, Romania and Czechoslovakia throughout the winter of 1918-1919 years. expanded their territories, capturing the land of the young republic.

Conflict resolution

At the end of February 1919 special commission under the leadership of the French representative Andre Tardieu at the Paris Peace Conference proposed to divide the troops of Hungary and Romania, and to a neutral territory, the area of ​​which was supposed to be significantly increased for score including the entire Carpathian Rus, to introduce American, French, Italian and British troops.

March 20 France sends an ultimatum noteThe Hungarian Republic. It requires the government to recognize the border along the line of location of the republican troops on the date of the note. President of Hungary Karyoi, realizing that his consent will lead to the loss of a huge territory, submits resign and transmits full power and, accordingly,the need to solve the problem that has arisen with the Social-Democratic forces. They, in turn, unite with the Communists and form a coalition government. His formal leader was Shandora Gharbai, and the actual - Bela Kun. On March 21, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed.

the Treaty of Trianon 1920

The defeat of Hungary

Bela Kun wanted to sign a peace treaty with the Entente countries. He even met with Jan Smutsom, the future premier of South Africa (South African union). But France and Britain did not react to these talks.

Soviet Hungary understood that the softening of conditionsunion states will not, therefore counted on the support of communist Russia and the socialist revolution. The Entente countries, in turn, tried, in all ways, to aggravate the situation of the republic. The country was in complete blockade, a direct military intervention began. At the initial stages, the Hungarian army held its defenses and even launched a counter-offensive: the Slovak Republic was proclaimed in the eastern and southern parts of Slovakia.

After the victory of the Hungarian army over Czechoslovakiatroops, President Wilson had to send an invitation to the Hungarian government for a Paris conference. At the same time, Hungary received an ultimatum Clemenceau. AT him the prime minister of France has demanded to recall the Hungarian army from Slovakia, to take her for the demarcation line, which was installed in early November. In return, it was promised to stop intervention from Romania.

The Socialist Government of Hungary adoptedconditions of an ultimatum. However, the allied states not only did not allow the republic's leadership to a peaceful settlement, they did not fulfill the obligations undertaken earlier, continuing the offensive into the country's territory. As a result, Soviet power in Hungary fell. Only after the victory over the government of the republic it was invited to Paris.

The Treaty of Trianon

Conversation

Instead the Social Democrats in Hungary came to power counterrevolutionary and anti-communist forces under the leadership of Miklos Horthy. This government was more convenient for the Entente, but the terms of the talks did not soften at all.

One of the developers Trianon Treaty of 1920 was Edward Benes. This diplomat and prominent politician was considered "architect" Czechoslovakia. He insisted on nominating hard requirements to Budapest, because he believed that it was the Hungarian government that was more guilty of starting a war than the official Vienna.

The delegation from Hungary arrived in Paris under the leadership of Count Albert Apponia. After 8 days the delegates were given a draft Trianon contract.

The Entente countries agreed only onminor concessions and allowed minor amendments. For example, on the issue of the strength of the Armed Forces of Hungary, the wording concerning the number of police and gendarmerie officers was slightly relaxed. The increase in staff was allowed, however, if "The Control Commission will establish that the number is insufficient".

In fact, the Hungarian government had no opportunity to influence the conditions Trianon contract. In March 1920 the delegation went home.

Trianon Peace Treaty of 1920

The final stage of preparation

March 8 Council of Ministers foreign ministries last timediscussed issues related to the establishment of the borders of Hungary. The British prime minister admitted revising the conditions formulated earlier, but the representative of France categorically rejected the possibility of revision. Nevertheless, the new chairman of the peace conference in Paris, Alexander Milleran after acquaintance with the text of the project Trianon The contract was annexed to it. AT him allowed the possibility of a subsequent revision of the borders of Hungary.

Hungarian diplomats, having received the draft with the application, thought that the agreement would be temporary, and signed it.

Entry into force

Ratification Trianon The contract was held in 1920, on November 15. After the signing of the key countries of the Entente agreement entered into force. However, the US president refused to ratify Trianon contract. Instead He signed a separate agreement in 1921, on August 29. In October this treaty was approved by the US Senate.

Terms of agreement

Trianon the contract was based on an example Saint-Germain agreement of 1919. The separate sections coincided almost verbatim.

Trianon Treaty with Hungary

The text included 364 articles, which were combined into 14 parts. In addition, the agreement contained a protocol and a declaration.

Under the treaty, Hungary lost many territories:

  • Eastern regions Banatas and Transylvania were given to Romania.
  • Western areas Banatas, Backa and Croatia became part of the Yugoslav Kingdom.
  • Parts Eve, Maramarosa, Komarma, Nograd, Shore, Nitora and Ung received Czechoslovakia.
  • To Austria walked away Burgenland. But it is necessary to say that the official accessionThis territory was provoked by a crisis. The offensive in the region of the Austrian police was stopped by Hungarian snipers, supported by the troops of Hungary. With the mediation of Italian diplomats, the crisis was resolved. In December 1921 passed referendum, as a result of which districts Of Bergenland, where the Hungarian population was predominant, supported the accession to Hungary.

Political Regulations

In accordance with them, Hungary refusedany of their rights and the grounds for their emergence in respect of the territories of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, which have moved to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Italy and Yugoslavia. At the same time independence of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia was proclaimed.

Trianon treaty with Hungary conditions

The Government of Hungary was committed to providing the entire population with an absolute protection of life, liberty without accounting origin, nationality, religion, race, language. All people had to get equal political and civil rights.

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