Boldinskaya autumn, in addition to the wonderful lyrics andtransparent, like pure autumn air, prose, gave us a small cycle of works, which became one of the most significant in the creative heritage of Alexander Pushkin. It is small in format, but very capacious in content and semantic load "Small tragedies".
Originality of the genre
Consider the originality of the genre and the summary."Little tragedies" of Pushkin can be attributed to philosophical dramatic works. In them the author reveals various aspects of human characters, studies various vicissitudes of fates and internal conflicts. Each of the tragedies, on the one hand, is a sketch of one or another type of personality at the moment of the highest tension of its internal, mental and mental powers. And on the other - this is a kind of cut of a certain social group of people in the proposed historical era. Conflicts that unfold before us, are not so much in the external world as in the heroes themselves - psychological and moral.
"Miserly Knight" is the first drama that weconsider the summary. "Little tragedies" of Pushkin knowingly begin with it. The power of gold, money, wealth over the human soul is one of the strongest in the world. The Baron, the main character of the drama, has long developed into a painful passion. Cold gold circles to him replaced everything: family, relatives, friends, respect, chivalrous valor, intellectual development and moral values. With trembling, so similar to the impatience of the passionately enamored youth, the hero descends into his basement - on a date with the chests. He remembers the history of every penny that turned out to be in his captivity. Without compassion, he remembers an unfortunate widow who prayed not to take away her last, for hours in the rain, kneeling in front of his gate. But the Mean's heart has long ceased to be human-such logical thoughts are prompted by the work, even its brief content. "Little tragedies" by Pushkin show that if a person begins to serve the Golden Taurus, it inevitably degrades. The drama ends sadly: father and son fight in a duel, and the last words of the Baron are not forgiveness and reconciliation, but: "My keys, keys!" Perhaps Pushkin was the first among Russian writers to express the idea of the corrupting power of money in society, and she proved to be very topical for all of our art.
"Mozart and Salieri"
Somewhat on other thoughts pushes us thiswork, even its brief content. "Little tragedies" of Pushkin acquire in the drama a global sound. The legend that the envious of Salieri poisoned the genius of Mozart, gets a different interpretation here. It's not only and not so much in envy: Salieri is kindly treated by the public, critics, rich, has achieved almost everything he dreamed of. But he does not understand Mozart - as in him the great divine talent is combined with such frivolity, such a childish attitude to life, to his vocation. A genius must work in the sweat of his face, every note of harmony must be extracted by him "later and with blood." And Mozart's got it all joking, by itself. He is the embodiment of light and cheerfulness, he is the sunny child of art. This sunshine, this life simplicity and artistry Salieri and does not accept, they contradict all of his views and theories about creativity. In the person of Mozart, more precisely in his behavior and philosophy, he sees a challenge to all that he worships. Salieri - artisan, Mozart - Master. With his genius, he not only can show to what heights a creative personality can rise, but also casts the less talented into despondency. And the speed and ease with which Wolfgang composes, are able to ward off other musicians from serious, thoughtful work on themselves and music. Consequently, art will only benefit if Mozart does not become. And Salieri ruins a friend for the sake of, it seems to him, the highest justice and for the sake of art itself - this thought brings us to this brief summary. "Small tragedies" of Pushkin, however, are full of philosophical generalization. And the verdict for Salieri is the words about genius and villainy as two incompatible things.
"Stone Guest" and "Feast during the Plague"
Pushkin "Little Tragedies" (summary andthe analysis of which we are considering) has been constructed according to the principle of reflection in each work of one or another facet of the soul. In the last two works, he brought to the forefront the heroes, capable of challenging social prejudices, views, traditions and even destiny. Dong Guang from the "Stone Guest", famous in Spain conqueror of women's hearts, is damn charming. He is brave, handsome, ready to expose the sword and cause the devil himself to duel, if he touches him. He seems genuinely in love with Dona Anna - the wife of the Commander, who was killed by him. But Pushkin sees much deeper than what lies on the surface. And the writer reveals to us the cold calculation of the hero, his immoral selfishness, the trampling of moral norms and moral values, which belong to the category of universal human beings. In the future, the exposure of individualism will become the main task of Russian classical literature.
Alexander Pushkin "Little Tragedies" finishes"A feast during the plague." On the example of Walsingham, he glorifies the personal courage of people who, in a moment of danger, can look into the face of death with their head held high and not resign themselves to its awful power. The struggle, and not fear and resignation, distinguishes a real person.
It can be rightly argued that "Little Tragedies" is a brilliant example of Russian psychological realism.