Horace - the second great Roman poet afterVirgil, who set himself the task of creating exemplary literature. He believed that poetry is the "gymnastics of the language". Horace did not like the lyrics of Catullus and sought to write works that would resemble Virgil's high-content and moralistic poems.
The reader is interested not only in creativitythe great Roman poet, but also his historical epoch, biography. Horace Quint made a great contribution to world literature, although he came from a simple family. In his poems he formulated his own wisdom and gave a whole series of recommendations of a moral and ethical plan, based on the philosophy of the golden mean.
The great Roman poet was born in 65 BC. e.in the city of Venusia. His work falls on the first decade of the reign of Octavian Augustus, who took the place of Caesar. He was born in the family of a freedman who took care of the formation of his son and after his death left him a small estate.
The life of the poet was directly related to the activitiesMaecenas. When Caesar was killed in Rome, Quintus Horace Flaccus joined the supporters of Brutus. It was Maecenas who helped him to establish himself in life: he gave the estate and introduced him into the circle of Augustus.
Horace died of a sudden illness in the 8th century BC. e. He was buried next to his virtue by Maecenas on the outskirts of Esquiline.
Quintus Horace Flaccus was a versatile poet,who created samples of poetry in different lyrical genres - ode and hymns. Both works are quite solemn in form and mood. However, his ode, issued in four books, is not aimed at praising someone else's merits, but reflects the poet's vital wisdom and his philosophy. Horace gives them advice, referring to the one to whom the ode is dedicated.
All the work of the great Roman poet can be divided into several cycles by genre:
1. Epos (poems-two-textures of iambic character).
2. Satire (works of an accusatory nature). Written with hexameter.
3. Ode (lyric poems dedicated to some event).
Horace, whose biography is represented by three periods of creativity, all his life adhered to the philosophy of the golden mean, built on wisdom, discretion, beauty, virtue and harmony.
Quintus Horace Flaccus, whose poems are moreparts were dedicated to individuals, very much succeeded in this literary genre. He wrote 23 letters, the last of which - "To Pisons" - was the second literary work after the "Science of Poetry" of Aristotle, which indicates its importance in the context of world literature. The main thing in Horace's aesthetics is reasonableness, conformity to nature, so that style and selected words fully correspond to the topic being raised. His poetry is difficult to understand. Johann Wolfgang Goethe once wrote that the images in the letters are like a "pendulum". The composition of lyrical verses is complicated by the fact that Horace could skilfully move from one image to another, using different verse sizes in the text. His poems are filled with various proper names, geographical names, and he pays attention to detail.
Poems-reflections are the embodiment ofwisdom. Quintus Horace Flaccus, whose work is mainly represented by four books od, writes in this thematic group about the shortness of life and the speed of the current time. For him, the pursuit of honors and riches is meaningless. In ode sounds the theme of love, feast, but unlike the poems of Catullus, their tone is happy and comforting. You can count 7 female names, to which Horace writes poems-reflections. In one of his odes (No. 30 "To Melpomene") he raises the problem of immortality of the poet and enters into the tradition, beginning with Egyptian poetry, that the immortality of man is achieved as a result of his work, the creation of literary works. His infinity Horace sees in verse.
This work received a conditional name"Monument". The poem was so popular with the classics of Russian literature that Gavrila Derzhavin borrowed the idea of the immortality of the poet's creativity, Alexander Pushkin ("I erected a miraculous monument to myself"), Valery Bryusov ("My monument stands, from stanzas consonant difficult "). The latter two borrowed the stanzas in Latin as an epigraph in Latin, which Horace once said. The biography of the poet, as you know, was far from enviable: from childhood he did not know the luxury and tried to remain in the memory of people for centuries on his own.
Ode № 30 is called "To Melpomene" and endsthird book od; Melpomene in mythology is the muse of tragedy. In the work Horace discusses his achievements and at the end he appeals with an appeal to crown himself with a laurel crown. To date, the most successful translations of odes number 30 are the poems of Lomonosov and Vostokov.
Peru, the great Roman poet,several collections of satyrs. From this it is worthwhile inferring that he became famous not only as a master of odes. Satire Horace resemble philosophical reasoning over the meaning of life, it is in them he expresses the philosophy of the golden mean. The main object of ridicule are the false ways of happiness, the pursuit of imaginary goods. Quintus Horace Flaccus, whose poems are satirical in nature, sarcastically over revelers and drunkards. One of his vital recommendations says that you should not become a slave of wine and abuse this drink to quell sorrow. Despite the fact that the object of ridicule in the satire are human passions and vices, in them he writes about personal: in satire No. 6, for example, he tells the story of his life. Horace, having a low background, lives, content with small and does not know luxury.
Sometimes Horace sometimes does not hide hisand is not ashamed of being the son of a slave released to freedom. According to the calculation of the literary critic Mikhail Gasparov, the poet used in his poetry 12 types of ancient Greek stanzas, his genius lies in masterful knowledge and possession of poetic art. In the first book of his odes, he gave a "parade" of these sizes, presented sapphic, alcove and other stanzas. In addition to Horace, whose years of life were very productive, he worked with the epics, which are very similar in form to the songs. They express political content and, as in iambas, deride the shortcomings of the people and people (the brightest example is "To the Roman people").
"Be pleased with what you have in your hands."The poet implied a simple life-truth, which says that one must live and rejoice in the present day and not condemn the creator for not every man is noble and rich. All goods should be received in an honest way and be content with small things.
"There is no use in money, if you save them, but notyou spend it. "How many times a person knows the story, when a person tried to earn money all his life, refusing himself in many respects, and, having earned it, died suddenly.Horatsius considers such a philosophy wrong: you need to spend your money evenly and live fully, without restrictions.
"Stir the lives of life with wine, but know the measure."Hedonism as a direction in aesthetics propagates the idea of pleasure as the supreme goal of human life. Horace shared this point of view by half: drinking wine can certainly quench grief, but they should not be abused.
"Fall in love, but do not suffer from love."Horace, whose biography is full of seven female names, has brought out the truth, thanks to which a man can live in harmony with his heart. He does not deny love, but opposes passion and suffering.
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Изначально термин «проза» использовался римлянами to denote non-rhythmical speech. The first works appeared in non-viable form much later. A well-known prose writer is considered to be Apuleius - the author of the adventure novel "The Golden Donkey", behind him is the Petronius Arbitrator, who wrote "Satyricon".