The state employment policy is aimed atthe solution of such an important task as the development and full realization of the labor potential of citizens. It is also possible to include provision of the population with decent earnings, stable promotion on the career ladder.
Active employment policies are actions,aimed at reducing unemployment. This includes activities that prevent the dismissal of employees, as well as training, training, assistance in finding jobs, retraining, the creation of new workers.
Passive state employment policy -these are measures that help to reduce the negative consequences of a phenomenon such as unemployment. This includes the payment of social benefits, the issuance of essential goods for the poor, the organization of special messes for the homeless, as well as other types of assistance.
The state employment policy is divided into three categories.
- Economic measures. In particular, stimulation of entrepreneurial activity through the provision of tax incentives, subsidies, and lending.
- Organizational measures. In particular, this is an increase in professional qualifications, assistance in job search, training.
- Legal measures.These are legislative acts that ensure early retirement, a decrease in the retirement age, the establishment of a working day, and leave. In addition, these are laws that provide for a minimum wage, the provision of time off, double pay for entering service on public holidays, and safety conditions in industries classified as harmful.
The state employment policy is dividedon three models, popular in developed countries. The American model implies the creation of a large number of jobs, which do not require high performance. At the same time, unemployment is formally declining, but the number of citizens with a minimum wage is increasing.
Scandinavian state policy in the field ofemployment implies the creation of jobs in public spheres. At the same time, citizens receive an average salary and stability. However, this system has its drawbacks. In particular, there is a risk of inflation and depletion of financial resources.
The European model implies revenue growth and increased productivity. Such a system requires large benefits for the unemployed.
There are different types of employment. Full-time employment means activity all day long, in which the employee receives a salary in the amount appropriate for the region.
Part-time employment may be forced incommunication with various economic reasons. It involves activities during an incomplete day, which implies a reduced efficiency and low wages.
Voluntary part-time employment is most often associated with various social causes. For example, a person looks after a sick family or combines study with work.
Let's sum up.The state policy in the field of employment should be implemented in a comprehensive manner. It is necessary to help people who can not get a job for some reason. For example, it can be assistance in training and retraining. However, it is worth remembering that in any case, a certain percentage of unemployment will remain. Special measures will be necessary here. In particular, these are various benefits and assistance to the poor. There are different mechanisms for reducing unemployment. Each of them has its pros and cons. In any case, it is necessary to stimulate people to work, because the welfare of the state depends on how many citizens are involved in the economy.