Ancient doctors could not even imagine,that in the future it will be possible to examine the internal organs of a person and at the same time not to make incisions on the body. At present, such a survey has become a reality. Medical science develops constantly, so that it is possible to identify various pathological conditions in a timely manner and provide the necessary help to patients. Endoscopic studies allow to assess the condition of the tissues of hollow organs from the inside. There are several types of such diagnostics that will be discussed in this article.
In medical practice, the term "endoscopy"imply examination of internal organs that have a cavity, using lighting devices. To perform this procedure, use an endoscope - rigid or flexible tubes of small diameter. In the first case, the fiber optic system serves as the basis of the device. On one side is a light bulb, and on the other - an eyepiece, which allows you to adjust the size of the image. Flexible endoscopes allow you to explore the most inaccessible places. A clear picture is transmitted along the bundle of fibers despite the bends of the system. A new step in the development of this area of diagnostics is capsular endoscopy.
With the help of flexible endoscopes, not onlyto carry out diagnostics, but also to take tissue samples (aspiration biopsy) for a more detailed study of the pathological process. Endoscopic studies can determine the nature of the disease, monitor the dynamics of treatment. A unique device allows you to assess the condition of almost any organ. The procedure itself is carried out exclusively in medical institutions by specially trained personnel.
The main advantage of diagnostics with the help ofendoscope - the ability to see the condition of internal organs without surgical intervention. The procedure is painless for the patient. The only thing that he can feel is discomfort. In the process of examination, the person is conscious.
The diagnostic method is sometimes used foroperations. In this case, a small cut of the skin is made, through which a tube with a lighting device will be inserted. This manipulation is necessary when removing benign neoplasms on internal organs, when extracting foreign bodies. Endoscopic methods of research can be used to administer drugs.
The appearance of endoscopy allowed to inspect almost all organs. The diagnostic method is applied in the following fields of medicine:
Recently, endoscopy has been used fordiagnosis of knee joints. In the process of diagnosis (arthroscopy), the patient is given a special device - an arthroscope, which allows the specialist to assess the condition of the joint and perform the procedure with minimal surgical intervention. Conducting endoscopic studies also makes it possible to recognize the ailment at an early stage, so they are often prescribed for the prevention of patients at risk.
The only way to see the state of the intestines -to conduct endoscopy. In medical terminology endoscopic studies of this kind are called esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and rectomanoscopy. Indications for the diagnosis of the esophagus, stomach, thick and small intestine, rectum are the following pathological conditions:
Depending on the preliminary diagnosis, the specialist will select the most suitable variant of the endoscopic examination.
One type of endoscopyis a colonoscopy. The method allows to diagnose the large intestine with the help of a flexible colonoscope device consisting of an eyepiece, a light source, a tube through which air is delivered and special tongs for material intake. The device allows you to see a sufficiently high-quality image displayed on the screen, the conditions of the mucous membrane of the colon. The length of the tube used for this type of diagnosis is 1.5 meters.
The procedure is quite simple.The patient is offered to lie on his left side and pull to his chest knees bent at the knees. After that, the doctor carefully enters the colonoscope into the rectum. Anus can be pre-lubricated with an anesthetic gel. The tube is gradually advanced into the interior, examining the walls of the intestine. For a clearer picture, air is continuously supplied during the diagnosis process. The procedure takes no more than 10 minutes.
Of course, to get the exact picturethe patient's colon should be prepared for a colonoscopy. Preparation for endoscopy is primarily about dieting. Exclude from the daily menu products that contribute to stool retention and increased gas production should be at least one week before the expected date of the diagnosis.
On the day of the survey, one should refrainfrom the morning meal. Only use liquid. Before the procedure, experts recommend cleaning the rectum with an enema or using laxatives.
Endoscopic examination of the intestine -Colonoscopy is a painless procedure and therefore should not be feared. The patient can feel only minor discomfort. In some cases, manipulation is performed under anesthesia, but most often they are limited to sedative and anesthetic drugs.
Relatively new direction in diagnosisdiseases of the gastrointestinal tract is capsular endoscopy. The method appeared only in 2001. The endoscope used for the study resembles a medicinal capsule, which greatly facilitates the very process of introducing the device. This tablet should be simply washed with water. The device is activated immediately after the opening of the individual package. Passing through the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the capsule makes a lot of pictures, which later will help to diagnose.
The advantages of this method are obvious - the patient does notYou need to swallow a hose or experience because of a colonoscopy. The capsule enters the most remote parts of the intestine, where there is no access to the usual endoscope. On the other hand, this method does not allow you to take material for biopsy, remove polyps. Therefore, doctors prefer to still use capsular and traditional endoscopy of the digestive system.
Endoscopic examination of the esophagus is carried outfor the purpose of diagnosing various pathologies. Most often, esophagoscopy is combined with examination of the stomach and duodenum. This allows you to get a more complete picture of the state of the digestive tract. The method allows to identify ulcers, hemorrhages, inflammatory processes, polyps on the mucous membrane. Taking the material for a biopsy allows you to establish the etiology of the disease. Inspection is carried out by both a flexible and rigid device.
Indications for examination are structural abnormalities, gastroesophageal reflux, chemical burns of the mucosa, the need for biopsy, the presence of a foreign body, inflammatory processes.
To diagnose the walls of the digestive tractendoscopy using ultrasound may be used. The latter allows you to obtain an image of the organs due to sound waves. This method is most often used to detect benign neoplasms, tumors, stones in the bile ducts, inflammation of the pancreas. Endoscopic studies using ultrasound can assess the mucosa of the entire digestive system.
The endoscope to the patient is injected through the larynx first intoesophagus, gradually pushing it into the stomach and duodenum. Pre-larynx is treated with an analgesic spray to stop unpleasant sensations. Ultrasound may be needed to take tissue samples.
Endoscopic research methods in mostcases do not cause serious violations in the body. If the procedure is carried out correctly, the patient can return to the ordinary way of life within a few hours without feeling any unpleasant sensations. However, nevertheless, there are situations when after a diagnosis a person is forced to seek medical help. Most often, damage to the walls of the organs during the passage of the endoscope is recorded. Determine this can be from the pain syndrome, which does not pass a long time, the presence of blood in the feces.
There may be an allergic reaction toan analgesic used in the research process. In this case, the use of antihistamines is indicated. Arrhythmia after the procedure is often developed in patients with cardiovascular pathologies.
Correct preparation of the patient for endoscopicresearch will avoid many undesirable consequences. The diagnosis itself should be carried out in a hospital or polyclinic. Preliminary the doctor should exclude all contraindications for carrying out of such kind of inspection.