Science is true knowledge, backed uptheoretical and practical research, which is often characterized as a theoretical and empirical level of knowledge. There are various methods of obtaining scientific knowledge, but still distinguish several of the most important categories:
1) Universal or philosophical methods that belong to the broadest group.
2) General scientific methods of research, applicationwhich is possible in any field of scientific research. This category echoes the previous one, but has the main difference - general scientific methods are applied at certain stages of obtaining scientific knowledge. The general scientific methods of research include analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, and others.
3) Special methods applicable in a particular scientific field or a separate science. Typical examples are experiments in chemistry and physics, biological methods of research, and so on.
4) Private methods used to solve one particular problem.
General scientific methods of research at an empirical level distinguish experiment and observation.
Observation refers to the methods of targetedperception of the actions of natural elements, man, as well as other phenomena and processes in which any interference from outside is excluded. Before the observation, certain requirements are put:
- a strict orientation of the idea, that is, its uniqueness,
- the correctness of the observed processes and phenomena must be confirmed by other methods of investigation.
According to the submitted requirements, observationideally suited in the case where it is impossible or should not influence the course of the process. It is for such purposes that many instruments have been created that allow not only to strengthen the capabilities of sense organs, but also to relieve the course of the process from subjectivism in evaluation.
General scientific methods of research require not onlydescription of the observed processes, but also the measurement. Observation, accompanied by the use of instruments, the result of which is most often tables, graphs, oscillograms and so on, require, among other things, their interpretation. This applies to both experiment and observation.
The general scientific methods of research concernand also various experiments, that is, experiments conducted under specified and controlled conditions. They are based on an assumption or hypothesis that allow you to set a task and explain the results. The advantage of the experiment lies in the possibility of influencing the course of the process, which makes it possible to change the conditions, to study the phenomenon in a "pure form", and to reproduce the same result under the same conditions.
General scientific methods of research do not implyonly the acquisition of data, but also their interpretation, for which it is necessary to systematize the available data. For systematization, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction are most often used.
The use of any methods requires differentfunctions of scientific research. These include description, explanation and forecasting. Hence it can be seen that practical data alone can not be avoided, therefore theoretical and empirical methods always work together. All data obtained as a result of the experiment or observations are collected and systematized in order to predict the possibility of the flow of the process under certain conditions. Based on these data, it becomes possible to implement such a function of scientific research as forecasting. A standard example is the weather forecast, which is based on data received from satellites, which are processed on the basis of specially designed computer programs. The programs were created on the basis of many years of work by scientists who systematized information and revealed the main trends that allow one to draw conclusions about temperature changes.