Among the problems of interest to linguistics,an important place is the study of the linguistic features of verbal activity of interlingual character, called "translation". The theory of translation often falls into the focus of attention of linguists.
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of translation, whichthe moment of emergence began to fulfill the most important social function, creating conditions for interlingual communication of people. It originated in ancient times, when the associations of people who spoke different languages were formed in the history of civilization. Immediately there were people who own them two and help communicate other people from these associations. As such, the general theory of translation did not yet exist, but every specialist in this field had his own approach.
After mankind invented writing, specialists in the translation of official, religious and business texts joined the group of interpreters, interpreters, and translators.
Written translations have given people the opportunityto join the cultural heritage of other nations. National literature, science and culture have received ample opportunities for interaction and mutual enrichment. Knowledge of foreign languages makes it possible to read scripts. However, not everyone can master even one foreign language.
The first theory of translation was created bytranslators, seeking to generalize their own experience, and often the experience of their colleagues in the shop. Of course, the most remarkable interpreters of their time told the world about their strategy, although often their conceptual calculations did not correspond to modern scientific principles, so they could not form a consistent abstract concept. Nevertheless, the theory of translation still retains interest in the considerations they have outlined.
Even in the period of antiquity between the translatorsthere was a discussion about the correspondence of the translation to the original. Making the very first translations of sacred books, including the Bible, most specialists sought to literally copy the originals, which made the translation vague, and sometimes completely incomprehensible. Therefore, the attempts of some translators to justify the theoretically greater freedom of the translated text from the original, it is quite reasonable to justify the need not to translate literally, but the meaning, sometimes even simply the impression or charm of a foreign text.
Even their early statements concerning the aims of the translator indicate the beginning of discussions, which today, in our time, are concerned with the theory and practice of translation.
Two types of transfers, alternating, all the time followedeach other in the process of cultural development. One group of specialists believes that the translation should correspond to the peculiarities and habits of the native speakers, while the other group, on the contrary, defends the preservation of the language structure of the original, even forcibly adapting the native language to it. In the first case, the translation is called free, in the second case it is literal.
Just as during the verbal communication, texts for those who speak and for those who listen are considered to be equivalent, so the translated text is considered equivalent to the translated one.
Art translation, theory and practicewhich differs from the translation of texts of a scientific or technical nature, has its own specifics. Function of the language of fiction is the emotional impact that it exerts on the reader.
Acquaintance with foreign literature allreaders of the world are obliged to an art translation, one of the most complex, which requires the translator to be resourceful, to live in the text, the acuteness of all the senses, creative self-expression that does not obscure the author's originality.