The theory of automatic control was born stillin the 19th century, in its second half, and was called "regulation." With the expansion of the field of application of machines with steam engines, there appeared a need for special regulators, which are devices supporting the uninterrupted operation of such machines. It is this fact that gave impetus to the beginning of scientific research in the field of technical management of objects and is known as the "theory of automatic regulation". Later on, the scientists deduced the main aspects of this teaching, which can be successfully applied in such systems as social and economic ones. Therefore, the original name was replaced by a term of wide significance - "Theory of automatic control."
The next stage in this field of research isprocess of introduction into the control system (SS) and regulation of automation devices of some electronic elements and telemechanics. This fact contributed to the emergence of sufficiently accurate guidance and tracking systems, telemetry and telecontrol, automatic correction and control. The 20th century (50th years) is famous for the creation of automatic control systems for industrial complexes and production processes using electronic computers.
Managing any object impliesImpact on him to achieve the goal, determined by a particular process or state. In the form of a control object (OS), an electric motor, any machine or aircraft can be adopted. The use of technical means without involving a person in the management process is called automatic. In turn, the automatic control system (ACS) is formed on the basis of the combination of automatic control and OS.
Fundamentals of the theory of automatic controlpresuppose the maintenance of laws of change of certain physical quantities that characterize the processes taking place in the OS, without the participation of a person. Such quantities are called "controlled quantities". In this class of systems, automatic control systems can be seen. Their task is to establish the values of the controlled quantity at a constant level. It is also necessary to achieve changes of the same magnitude within a given program. For example, when considering a baking oven as a control object and as a controlled quantity, a temperature that changes its values according to a certain program, based on the requirements of the technological process, will serve.
In further studies, the goal of managementlinked directly with the set of quality indicators, which gave a complete characterization of the system. In turn, these indicators began to be required to achieve the smallest or largest (limiting) values. It is for this purpose that self-adaptive or adaptive systems were created.
The theory of automatic control promotesImproving the functioning of the facility, which must be managed by a special system. Often, auxiliary operations such as start-up, monitoring, shutdown and commissioning can also be automated. In itself, the ACS should function as part of a certain production facility.
The theory of automatic control considers such classifications of control systems as:
- the purpose of management;
- type of control loop;
- method of signal transmission.
The theory of automatic control must studyregularities of the processes that occur during the construction of the automatic control system, to investigate the design features of the control object, taking into account the conditions of its operation for constructing qualitative, accurate and efficient control systems.